Various statistics from studies and census the world over has shown an abysmal increase in infertility and persons seeking treatment for conception

Various statistics from studies and census the world over has shown an abysmal increase in infertility and persons seeking treatment for conception. The Indian cultural norms favor marriages with a higher fertility almost unanimously with new marriages being blessed to have large families. A state of childlessness or lack of male child in the family is often an open invite to bias and prejudice. Despite such a state existing in India, researches into the problem of childlessness has been overlooked to a large extent in favor of promoting family . Researches related to infertility and involuntary childlessness has been sidelined in the past few decades and a greater amount of importance being given to managing unwanted fertility through various public health program approaches.
A general attribution to infertility and involuntary childlessness is often on the female partner. she may not be able to conceive due various reasons and if often the first to be medically checked as well. Skakkebaek et.al 1994 in their study on psychological and social aspects of infertility among men has identified that globally 15% couples face a difficulty in conceiving when pregnancy is wished for , and in half of these couples, men are in need of treatment.
Various researches have studied psychological functioning of an individual in multiple dimensions, these most commonly being instability of mood, lack of personal identity or role functioning, deficits in self-esteem and lower quality of life. Some studies have also been themed on studying the relationship and interaction between personality traits and coping mechanisms, emotional self-regulation, unfavorable assessment of situations and a lack in maintaining a loci of control.
These studies have all identified specific deficits in the individual functioning and a unfavorable outcome of marital relationship in the context of infertility and involuntary childlessness. In many of the research studies undertaken data have been taken as verbal responses and in a clinical setting with the aid of a standardized scale. Even though the scales have been able to capture information there have been lack of information collected about certain attributes and dimensions of the research problem. Valsanghakar.et.al 2012, have identified that in-depth interviews are required to gain an in-depth understanding of the problem and its effects on marital life and quality of life.
The research studied the effects of involuntary childlessness on married couples.In India,childlessness has more unwanted social, cultural, and emotional repercussions for women than perhaps any other condition which is not immediately life threatening having devastating consequences.Parenting and the wish for a child of one’s own is one of the most primeval innate desire and goal for an adult married person of all cultures. Various definitions have been created over a period of time describing the meaning of being married and it to be a successful one as well. Most cultures define having a child as the maturation of a marital relationship. Procreation is considered to be the stepping stone for a self actualized marriage for social and religious acceptance. Couples who are not able to conceive with a few months or within the first year of marriage, without the use of contraceptives, start worrying if they have not conceived. About 40% of pregnancies occur within the first six months and 80% within the first year of marriage. There is a possibility that conception and bearing a child could become difficult for certain couples. Some couples decide to not have children for a specific period of time or some could experience difficulty in conception itself.
Various studies conducted in India have identified the effects of infertility, but none have suggested on the psycho-social management.Identifying an intervention that enhanced the knowledge of the couple about their infertility status is one of the primary aims of this study. Enhancing their ability to overcome the emotional impact, concerns following infertility, identifying the impact on the attachment styles of the couple, and the sex-role identity of the woman and man for being an involuntary childless couple in the Indian population with respect to the various familial, protective and coping factors had not been researched yet . A large proportion of studies have studied the of infertile women’s view of the issue, studies specific to management of the same from a couple’s perspective have been studied in a very limited manner. This research studied both men’s and women’s infertility and its impact. (Covington, 2006)
Psychological interventions in the form of therapies is practiced and as been explored minimally in the Indian context. Eclectic interventions with therapeutic goals can help achieving better quality of life, reducing grief and anxiety that could realistically be achieved with the types of psycho-social interventions used with infertile individuals. Understanding cognitive appraisal, i.e. , the individual’s perception of the fertility problem, assuming that behavioral responses are triggered by cognitive appraisals of the current situation and has a direct impact on the couples well being was one of the needs of the research. Responses to disenfranchised grief, identity seeking and coping with emotions have been the common findings in studies world over. However, there have been no attempts for seeking a need-based psycho-social intervention within cultural boundaries. This study is an attempt to bridge the gap of identifying such an intervention within the Indian cultural context.
Psycho-dynamic and social cognitive intervention models with psycho-education has been seen to help reduction in grief, anger and improving regret of being childless. Psycho-education about the condition and awareness is one of the key indicators that lead to a higher quality of life. Psychological interventions helps in the management of stress by addressing negative cognition’s; however, willingness of the individual to receive a psychological therapy and therapeutic participation is not the only factor to ensure successful conception, it is a synthesis of various physical, emotional, medical and social factors. (Marsiglia,2015 and Lawson, 2014)