Pakistan Geographical Location and Importance
What is Geography?
Geography tells us about the natural background for the study of the history of a country and its people. Man reacts to his environment and tries to take control over the forces of nature. The discussion of the geographical factors affecting human life, such as physical features, climate and natural resources is a fitting introduction of the history of a country. (1)
Introduction of Pakistan:
Pakistan came into existence as an independent country on August 14, 1947. It is the home of the Indus Valley Civilization, which likes those of Nile valley and the valley of Euphrates and Tigris, built the foundation of modern civilization.
Pakistan contains high mountains and plains. It is largely a dry area drained by large streams. It is poor in metallic minerals, but rich in several non-metallic minerals. It is an agricultural country. (2)
Geographical location of Pakistan
On the off chance that we discuss the area of Pakistan on earth then its relative area is situated in the Centre East, a perceived land locale of South-Western Asia, is arranged in both the Northern and Eastern Sides of the equator.
India lies in Pakistan’s Eastern outskirt, China lies in the North-East fringe while Afghanistan is arranged in North-West bearing. In North, just a limited belt of 15 miles in Afghanistan, called “Wakhan” isolates Pakistan from Russia. Toward the West lies Iran and in the South is the Middle Eastern Ocean.
Geographical Aspects of Pakistan
Country name Pakistan
Continent in which it exists Asia
Latitude 23.30° and 36.45°
Longitude 61° and 75.45°
Area covers 796096 square kilometre
Population 210-220 million
On Eastern border India
On Western border Afghanistan and Iran
On Northern border China
On Southern border Arabian Sea
Provinces Four (Punjab, Sindh, NWFP, Balochistan)
Neighbors of Pakistan:
There are few neighbors of Pakistan, which are discussed below:
Pakistan and India: Pakistan is land locked from three sides. India lies to its east. Pakistan has a long border with India which is approximately, 1610 kilometers. There are two railway routes between both countries, the first one is at Wagah near Lahore (Pakistan) and Atari near Amritsar (India) and another railway route exists between Khokrapur (Sindh, Pakistan) and Munabao (India). (3)
Since independence, relations between both countries are very poor. India deeply resented partition and creation of Pakistan. In turn Pakistan feared India’s intensions. Arguments and Injustices gave rise to constant disagreements. The question of Kashmir has dominated the troubled relationship of Pakistan and India. Between 1947 and 1971, three wars were fought between these countries. The India-Pakistan truce line keeps running from the rough Karakoram Go to a point around 130 kilometers outside of Lahore toward the upper east. The Unified Countries sorted out this line after the Indo-Pakistan War of 1947-48 after the segment sent the two nations reeling. Exiles in India and Pakistan were uprooted and added to the emergency of character the two new countries were confronting. The north/south fringe amongst India and Pakistan is convoluted and exceedingly questioned as specific districts inside the Pakistani and Indian states adjust all the more intimately with those on alternate sides of the outskirt.
The topography of India and Pakistan incorporates the Himalaya Mountains and the Indus Stream as their characterizing highlights; the two regions contain high mountain regions and waterway swamps close to the Indus Stream. India, because of its size and closeness to the sea additionally has swamps in its southern districts and the Thar Forsake in its western half. The two nations share comparative land includes and some social practices however contain a wide assortment of indigenous society.
Topography may back off correspondences and exchange, data and social learning exchange, and parcels are regularly battled about by different countries who think they have a legitimate claim to that bit of property. When it comes straight down to it geology all by itself won’t not be the troublesome factor in causing struggle it is humanities’ philosophy encompassing area, possession, and the boundaries of topography that genuinely keep us in strife with each other. (4)
Pakistan and China: China lies to the North of Pakistan. Mostly snow-capped mountains lie between two countries. The Karakoram Highway links the two countries by Khunjerab Pass. The distance of border between China and Pakistan is 585 kilometers. (5)
At the time of independence for Pakistan, China was involved in a civil war between the Nationalists and the Communists. In October 1949 the Communist People’s Republic of China came into being under the leadership of Mao Zedong. Help for the Chinese government from India discouraged Pakistan, at first, from recognizing the new government. But China was on the border with Kashmir, and was too important a country to ignore. In January 1950 Pakistan gave diplomatic recognition to the Communist Government of China. (6)
Pakistan and Afghanistan: Afghanistan is situated on the north western border of Pakistan. There are two roads that link Pakistan and Afghanistan. One links Peshawar with Kabul through the famous Khyber Pass. Another links Quetta to Kandahar. Afghanistan I land locked therefore a lot of its trade passes through Pakistan. With Afghanistan, Pakistan has the longest boundary, which is 2252 km.(7)
After independence of Pakistan, Pakistan expected friendly support from the neighboring Muslim state. Unfortunately from the start we have faced a lot of difficulties because of Afghanistan. When Pakistan was added to the United Nations in September 1947, Afghanistan cast the only vote against Pakistan. Later, the Russian attack on Afghanistan had made a huge impact on Pakistan. The fate of both countries is closely linked. (8)
Pakistan and Iran: Iran is situated in the south-west of Pakistan. There is a railway link between Pakistan and Iran. The railway starts from Quetta via Dalbandin and Nok Kundi to Iran. Kuh-i-Taftan is the border railway station in Pakistan and Zahedan in Iran. A road runs parallel to the railway. There is another good road link between both countries, which connects Southern Balochistan through Turbat and Mand with Iran. A large trade exists between both countries. (9)
Importance of Pakistan’s Location
Land characteristics of a state bring it both, a few chances to benefit and a few dangers to sidestep. Pakistan profited the open doors from its geology yet could get away from the dangers it postured. At the point when a state figures out how to abuse its topography to the best of its political and vital interests the investigation which comes fit as a fiddle is called geostrategic and geopolitics. Pakistan’s topography where brought the nation incalculable material advantages there its impulsive misuse additionally welcomed the confusion in the locale. Being the entryway to Central Asia and an appropriate course of access of World Powers into arrive bolted Afghanistan, the topography of Pakistan experienced the symptoms of the ‘New Great Game’ and the ‘Worldwide War on Terrorism’. However, things are in change today. The Northern fringe with China where prepares to acquire billion dollars venture the wake of CPEC there the Western outskirt with Afghanistan is looking for TAPI Gas Pipeline. Additionally, the South Western limit with Iran will at some point or another be adaptable for Pak-Iran Gas Pipeline. Pakistan’s recently practical port of Gwadar and the key significance it has concerning its vicinity to the Gulf States are some new parts of Pakistan’s topographical significance. We might assess every one of these angles in this article subsequent to experiencing a short depiction of nation’s topography.
Conventional Geographical Importance of Pakistan
Customarily, Pakistan’s land significance has been characterized in following ways:
Pakistan’s North Western Border can be utilized as an entrance to the Central Asian Republics rich in characteristic assets. It’s a tight portion of Afghan Territory amongst Tajikistan and Pakistan which if utilized as a travel course can profit every one of the nations in exchange.
Pakistan’s South Western Border with Iran is of incredible criticalness in an exchange with this oil-rich nation.
Eastern Border of Pakistan with India has been very less used than the potential it conveys. This can be a facilitated commerce course with India if the significant clashes between both the states are settled.
Northern Border of Pakistan with China gives another essential course to access of Chinese items in Pakistan.
In spite of the fact that the topography of the nation is same, the understandings of interests connected with it have enhanced a bit with the changing territorial and global progression. This can be assessed under the accompanying new heads:
China-Pakistan Economic Corridor
The $46 billion ‘China-Pakistan Economic Corridor’ conspire, which is being shown as a ‘Distinct advantage’ is more than a system of streets to connect Chinese city of Kashgar with the Gulf States by means of Gwadar of Pakistan. CPEC is an entire bundle of vitality ventures and exchange open doors for Pakistan. It is the most valued product of Pakistan’s geological significance the nation at any point had. Be that as it may, some credit additionally goes to the outside approach creators of Pakistan who constantly kept into contemplations the Sino-Pak common interests.
In the wake of CPEC, China will have the most brief course get to ever accessible to the Middle Eastern, African, and European markets. For Pakistan, it may be another pick up however to China, this entrance is a connection to it long haul key intend to assume control US control in the said locales. Gwadar port is the closest warm-water port to vitality rich Central Asian Countries
Purchased from Oman in 1958, Gwadar has been produced into a warm-water seaport which now worked by a Chinese organization named ‘China Overseas Port Holding Company’ under a 43 years concurred rent. The port is the spirit of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. Being the closest remote ocean port to the landlocked Central Asian Republics, Gwadar is another appearance of Pakistan’s geological significance.
The Persian Gulf and Pars Gas Field
Pakistan’s Gwadar Port gives access to the ‘Bay of Oman’ which broadens through ‘Strait of Hormuz’ to frame the ‘Persian Gulf’. This inlet is encompassed by Iran, UAE, Saudi Araba, Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait and Iraq. Access to the Persian Gulf through Gwadar port means access to every one of these nations the majority of which are rich in vitality assets. The Persian Gulf additionally has the world’s biggest petroleum gas repository ‘Standards Gas Field’ shared by Iran and Qatar. Pakistan’s geographic significance increments because of its closeness to such uber fields of regular assets when the nation has been experiencing vitality starvation for drawn out stretches of time.
Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India Pipeline (TAPI)
The Asian Development Bank’s financed task of TAPI is the name of a gas pipeline which plans to supply flammable gas from the Caspian Sea to the four nations said above. Pakistan because of its topographical proximity to this Central Asian Republic is looking for advantage from the venture. It likewise mirrors the reliance of India on Pakistan for approaching the characteristic assets of Central Asian Republics. The development of the venture started in December 2015, and it will be practical by 2019.
Iran-Pakistan Gas Pipeline
Otherwise called the ‘Peace Pipeline’ the undertaking is another product of Pakistan’s geographic significance. The pipeline venture was formally introduced in 2013, yet it’s a long way from being operational because of a few debates. Especially the counter Iran position of the USA impacted Pakistan to surrender the task. Things, notwithstanding, have changed after the US-Iran Nuclear Deal and Iran is not any more under colossal approvals. Pakistan in the meantime never totally surrendered the venture. Hints of something better over the horizon are obvious for the eventual fate of this venture.
Pakistan imparts Marine Border to Oman
Pakistan and Oman settled their sea under an assention in 2000; clinging to the International Law of Sea. This sharing of a sea limit with the selfless nation of Oman can decipher Pakistan’s topographical significance in the feeling of access to Oman’s undersea vitality assets. The ocean course can likewise be utilized to approach the Persian Gulf and its littoral states.
The accompanying talk toss light on the significance ofPakistan’s area:
1. Circumstance: Pakistan is arranged in a district of awesome financial, political and military execution. Among its neighboring nations are China and Russia, which are figured to be among the nations perceived as super powers.
2. Karachi as a Vital Port: The modern advance of the Western nations relies on the oil of the Bay States. This oil is helped through Middle Eastern Ocean and the Indian Sea. Karachi is a critical port of the Middle Eastern Ocean. The Remote strategy of Pakistan can, in this manner, influence the development of oil.
3. As a focal point of the Muslim World: Pakistan is arranged in the focal point of the Muslim World. Toward the west of Pakistan, beginning from Afghanistan and Iran lies a chain of Muslim nations going through Asia and ending at the Eastern shoreline of the Atlantic Sea i.e the Center East, Bay and Africa. Toward the east of Pakistan, beginning from Bangladesh lies another chain of Muslim nations while.
4. The Upper Indus Plain: Underneath the Northern Precipitous Territory is the upper Indus plain. Around there the late spring is extremely hot. The long stretches of May, June and first seven day stretch of July are exceptionally hot. In any case, the atmosphere here winds up plainly wonderful when rain falls in July. The winter period of the Upper Indus Fields is extremely charming yet it doesn’t keep going long.
5.The Seaside Territories and the Lower Indus Valley: The temperature of the beach front regions and the lower Indus valley does not ascend because of ocean arrive breeze. In this area rain does not fall, however because of blowing of ocean breeze moistness is found noticeable all around. Ocean breeze keeps the atmosphere charming. There isn’t much contrast in the temperature of various months in this locale.
6.The Level of Baluchistan and the Thar Abandon: In summer, the temperature of the level of Baluchistan and the Thar Forsake rises. A large portion of the uneven districts of Baluchistan are dry and hot. The winter season is extremely serious in Baluchistan and here and there snow falls in specific areas .
Arabian Sea/ Coastline/ Ports and Shipping:
The coastline of Pakistan is 825kms along the Arabian Sea. It is divided into the distinct Sindh and Makran coasts. The entire coastline lies within the tropics. Vegetation is restricted and tall species of trees are not common, except for some date palms that are spread irregularly along the coastline. The coastline is rich in seaweed resources; there are about 45 species of green and 75 species of red algae. Fish fauna is also of value there are over400 species of marine fish. Sea turtles are also found on the coastline which attracts the tourists towards them. (10). A lot of development is also done on the coastline in the form of ports which written below:
Fish Harbor-cum-Mini Port: The communities living along the coastal area of the country are one of the poorest ones. The government has decided to give economic benefits to these people. Therefore, they have decided to develop a Fish Harbor-cum-Port at Keti Bunder. This mini port will be developed in the budget of Rs. 1 billion; it will also provide jobs to the people living along with coastal areas.
Gwadar Port: The government set up a Committee to discuss the recommendations about the port which is being built in deep sea port on the coastal areas of Balochistan. Government has invested US $700 to 800 million on this project
Karachi Port: Karachi Port is the main port of Pakistan about 98% of Pakistan’s entire trade is consulted through this Port. This Port is modernized at a total cost of Rs. 5 billion including World Bank loan of US $ 91.4 million. Government has ordered for the early completion of the scheme.
Port Qasim: This is the second most important port of Pakistan which handles the trade of the country. It needs a great arrangement of improvement to reduce pressure on Karachi Port. It is specially designed to handle large cargo so far.(11)
Pakistan is a land of many splendors. The scenery changes northward when high mountains with beautiful valleys, snow-covered peaks and eternal glaciers in the north. The Mountainous North is expanded towards the northern part of the Pakistan. Major ranges of mountains are written below:
The Karakoram Mountains: The Karakoram Mountains are extended from Tibet in the east to Hindu Kush Mountains in the west. The Karakoram Mountains lie north of the Indus River and extend northward beyond the borders of Pakistan. They are about 200kms wide. K2, at 8611 meters, is the second highest peak in the world after Mount Everest is lying in Karakoram Mountains. Karakoram Range is the most extensively snow-covered range beyond the polar region. Locally, these mountains are known as Mustagh or ‘ice-mountains’.
There are not many passes, and those that exist are located at northern border, like Karakoram Pass which is the highest. The Khunjerab Pass is the most important pass region, linking Pakistan and China through Karakoram Highway. It is possible to travel by jeep on some of roads in Karakoram Mountains but this often ends unexpectedly against rocky mountain walls. Beyond these, hikers travel by foot and pack animal.
The Hindu Kush Mountains: The Hindu Kush is a continuation of the Karakoram Range. Hunza River and Gilgit River divide both of them. But generally, Ghiza River is taken as their southern limit.
The Hindu Kush Mountains are terrifying. The Hindu Kush Mountain guards the north-western border of Pakistan. Tirich Mir at 7690 meters altitude and Noshaq at 7484 meters altitude are among the highest peak in the world.
The passes in the Hindu Kush are often quite difficult to negotiate. The Baroghil Pass connects Pakistan with Wakhan in Afghanistan. The Dorah and Shera Shing Passes lie between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
A number of glaciers cap the Hindu Kush. Sakiz Jarab and Tirich Mir are among the most important
The Himalayas: The Himalayas extend from Assam in the east to Pakistan in the west. They rise to an average height of 6000 meters. Mount Everest, at 8848 meters, is the highest peak in the world and it lies in the Himalayas. The Himalayas are represented in Pakistan by three sub parallel ranges lying south of the Indus River: the Great or High Himalayas; the Lesser Himalayas and the Sub-Himalayas.
The Great Himalayas lie south of the Indus River.
The Lesser Himalayas are located south of the Great Himalayas.
The Sub-Himalayas or the Siwaliks are the southernmost mountains in the Himalayas Range.(12) (13) (14
From snow-capped mountains in the north to the sunny beaches in the south, Pakistan abounds in tourists’ attraction. The mountains, the Plains and the Beaches all these things attract tourists. Tourism is one of the largest growing industry in the world. During 1993, Pakistan recieved0.379 million foreign tourists, this was an increase of 7.7% compared to the previous years. Pakistan has earned Rs. 126 million US dollars in 1993 from foreign tourists. But afterwards this rate increases by 5.4% as compared to the previous year. In the Eight Five Year Plan, the amount of Rs. 1090 million has been invested for development of Tourism.
Cooperation between the SAARC countries: The SAARC Secretariat has created a Technical Committee on Tourism for mutual promotion of tourism between members of SAARC countries. As Pakistan is also a member so, it actively is attending meetings and discussions etc. to play its role in the promotion for development in tourism industry.
Visa and Formalities: No visa is required for the tourists who came to Pakistan for adventure or sightseeing. Double entry visas are also issued by our embassies to the genuine tourists. Pakistan is earning a lot from there tourists as the Karakoram Range and the Himalaya Range both lies in Pakistan. Hikers often visit Pakistan for their adventure on mountains. However, the facility of free entry is not available to the foreign tourists.(15)
Most interesting tourism spots in Pakistan
Voyaging is ostensibly one of life’s most improving encounters. For some, the spots they visit and the general population they meet en route characterize them. Regardless of whether you go looking for a more profound significance to life or just to make tracks in an opposite direction from the unforgiving substances of regular daily existence, a definitive inquiry you will be stood up to with is — where to go?
The appropriate response depend an awesome arrangement on what sort of explorer you are. Many get a kick out of the chance to movement alone. Some must escape vacationer traps at any cost. Others search for excellence. The foodie designs a schedule in view of cooking, while the globe-trotter scans for anything out of the way. So maybe the genuine inquiry to posture is: who are you? The response to that will manage your decision of vacationer goal.
Envoy welcomed five travel scholars, experience searchers, picture takers and analysts to share what they accept is the most appealing traveler goal in Pakistan.
Hunza Valley holds the enchantment of antiquated culture, yet gives agreeable lodgings, curious shopping, and a selection of eateries. The city of Aliabad has twelve inns, extending in quality from two to five stars. There are several Chinese eateries, keep running by Chinese restaurateurs, as the Khunjerab Pass isn’t far.
The shops offer Hunza handmade shawls, mats and garments, all composed by Italian specialists — on account of the Agha Khan. Merchants offer cheddar from yak drain. The Agha Khan has had the Baltit Fort at the best and the Altit town in the valley beneath completely reestablished to world models.
The Khunjrab Pass is a day’s voyage, past the Attabad Lake and Dassu ice sheet. The Nagar Valley is over the stream with its dark ice sheet. Or on the other hand one can simply sit hesitating in a plantation, looking at the inclines of the Rakaposhi until the point when a torrential slide emits with a blast and rushes down to the base.
This marvelous valley is a two-hour agreeable drive from Gilgit, which is just a hour’s flight from Islamabad. So when the climate is fine it is simple, fast and pleasant.
For a certain something, it is one of the most secure urban areas to visit, with obliging, accommodating individuals. For another, it brags such a large number of awesome authentic locales in and around the city that you could top off collections with the absolute most astounding photos. Cases incorporate the brilliant world legacy site of Derawar Fort with its 40 bastions, in Cholistan Desert.
There is additionally the regal family necropolis of the Abbasis of Bahawalpur, the lovely engineering of which merits it a visit.
At that point there is the amazingly delightful castle Noor Mahal which had a place with the Nawab of Bahawalpur amid the British Raj and is today in the ownership of the armed force. Some may review seeing it in the TV play Noor Bano.
There are other excellent castles too in Bahawalpur, including Darbar Mahal and a superb mosque, Derawar Mosque.
There is bounty more to devour your eyes on — however in the event that there’s a cutoff to the measure of touring you need to do, don’t lose hope for Bahawalpur is additionally a customer’s heaven. One can get the most stunning deals there, be it weaved texture, gota-work suits or silver gems.
What’s more, What occasion could be viewed as entire without awesome nourishment? The city has the healthy offerings of Punjab taking care of business — and what’s more, at extremely sensible rates. So regardless of whether this may not be the best season for going to Bahawalpur, in the event that you haven’t been there, don’t miss it. You will love it.
The Thar Desert (Hindi: otherwise called the Great Indian Desert, is an expansive, dry district in the northwestern piece of the Indian subcontinent. With a zone of more than 200,000 sq. km., (140,000 sq. mi.) it is world’s seventeenth biggest forsake. It lies for the most part in the Indian condition of Rajasthan, and reaches out into the southern bit of Haryana and Punjab states and into northern Gujarat state. Pakistan, the leave covers eastern Sind region and the southeastern segment of Pakistan’s Punjab region. The Cholistan Desert abuts the Thar Betray spreading into Pakistani Punjab area.
The Thar Leave is limited on the northwest by the Sutlej Stream, on the east by the Aravalli Range, on the south by the salt swamp known as the Rann of Kutch (parts of which are once in a while incorporated into the Thar), and on the west by the Indus Stream. Its limit to the vast prickly steppe toward the north is badly characterized. Contingent upon what territories are incorporated or avoided, the ostensible size of the Thar can differ altogether.
The word Cholistan is gotten from the Turkish word Chol, which implies Betray. Cholistan in this manner implies Place that is known for the Betray. The general population of Cholistan lead a semi-traveling life, moving from one place to another looking for water and grub for their creatures. The dry bed of the Hakra Waterway.
The Thal abandon is arranged in Punjab, Pakistan. It is immense region predominantly between the Jhelum and Sindh waterways close to the Pothohar Level. Its aggregate length from north to south is 190 miles, and its greatest expansiveness is 70 miles while least broadness is 20 miles. This locale is isolated into the locale of Bhakkar, Khushab, Mianwali, Jhang, Layyah, and Muzaffargarh. Its part in Jhang is on the left bank of the stream Jehlum. Geologically, it takes after the deserts of Cholistan and Thar.main town of Thal are Mankera, Hayderabad Thal, Dullewala, Piplan, Kundiyan, Koat Aazam, Sarauy Muhajir, Mehmood Shaheed Thal, Rang Pur, Jandan Wala, Mari Shah Sakhira,Noor Pur Thal, and Muzafar Garh. Exceptionally denied territory from all prospectives. Instructive offices are as low as one can anticipate. Towns having populace of 10 thousands individuals are more taking a stab at secondary schools. Circumstance turns out to be all the more awful if there should be an occurrence of female training.
Indus Valley Desert (Punjab):
The Indus Valley Leave is a forsake ecoregion of northern Pakistan. The Indus Valley betray covers a territory of 19,500 square kilometers (7,500 square miles) in northwestern Punjab Region, lying between the Chenab and Indus streams. The Indus Valley Abandon is drier and less accommodating than the Northwestern thistle scour woods that encompass it.
Kharan Desert (Balochistan):
Kharan Abandon) is a forsake situated in Kharan Area, Balochistan, Pakistan. Pakistan’s second atomic test were performed in the Kharan forsake in 1998 May 30 of a scaled down gadget yielding 60 percent of the Ras Koh Slopes tests.
The geography of Pakistan has its own importance,we have discussed all the important aspects regarding the location of Pakistan.From this, we came to know about the different beautiful places along with their importance that ALLAH Almighty had gifted to this Islamic state.In this, all the information regarding the geography of Pakistan is briefly explained and contains the specifications and importances of the different places of Pakistan.It also includes the relations of Pakistan with other countries located in its geography.Here in this part,we discuss the location with its importance and the cultural, agricultural,religious,political,ethical,defence,relations with countries like india, Afghanistan,iran,specially china which is the most prominent name in the geographical history of Pakistan. Through this geographical information people, specially tourist feel very easy in picking up the place for their tour,this is also very helpful for the students who were very interested to know about the geography of Pakistan,through this they attain alot of knowledge of the relations of Pakistan with neighbouring countries along with other circumstances.It is also very helpful in order to know about the distance,area,population, of Pakistan. It also contains the information regarding the different mountains and deserts situated in the location of Pakistan with their highest peaks and climatical changes.
Pg. 1 (A short history of Pakistan, T.H. Qureshi, Published by University of Karachi, printed by BCC;T press university of Karachi)
Pg. 1 (Pakistan geography, economy and people, Fazle Karim Khan, endorsed by University of Cambridge international examinations.)
Pg.1 (Pakistan geography, economy and people, Fazle karim Khan, Endorsed by university of Cambridge international examination)
Pg. 176(Pakistan history, culture and government, Nigel Smith, printed by the times press limited, karachi, published by Amina Saiyid oxford university press)
Pg.1 (Pakistan geography, economy and people, Fazle karim Khan, Endorsed by university of Cambridge international examination)
Pg. 186 (Pakistan history, culture and government, Nigel Smith, printed by the times press limited, karachi, published by Amina Saiyid oxford university press)
Pg. 2 (Pakistan geography, economy and people, Fazle karim Khan, Endorsed by university of Cambridge international examination)
Pg.181 (Pakistan history, culture and government, Nigel Smith, printed by the times press limited, karachi, published by Amina Saiyid oxford university press)
Pg. 2 (Pakistan geography, economy and people, Fazle karim Khan, Endorsed by university of Cambridge international examination)
Pg. 39 (Pakistan a descriptive atlas, Rizwan zahid ahmed, published and printed by Feroz sons pvt. Limited, Lahore, Pakistan)
Pg 140,141(An official hand book of Pakistan, published by government of Pakistan, Islamabad, Printed at printing corporation of Pakistan Press, Islamabad)
Pg. 16,17,18 (Pakistan geography, economy and people, Fazle karim Khan, Endorsed by university of Cambridge international examination)
Pg. 23, 24, 25 (Pakistan a descriptive atlas, Rizwan zahid Ahmed, published and printed by Feroz sons pvt. Limited, Lahore, Pakistan)
Pg. 18,19 (An official hand book of Pakistan, published by government of Pakistan, Islamabad, Printed at printing corporation of Pakistan Press, Islamabad)
Pg. 200 (An official hand book of Pakistan, published by government of Pakistan, Islamabad, Printed at printing corporation of Pakistan Press, Islamabad)