The ‘father’ of genetics is a man named Gregor Mendel, named this after his work. He was a monk, also a plant biologist, who was born in 1822 in Austria and died in 1884 (Franklin, 2008).He studied pea plants in his monastery garden, he was fascinated with the inheritance patterns of a number of traits (Franklin, 2008). Mendel’s model of inheritance says parents pass on genes that determine traits of their children, everyone has two copies of a given gene (Franklin, 2008). However, if these copies indicate different alleles within the gene Mendel noticed that traits have the ability to be masked in one generation of peas however may reappear in the later generations (Franklin, 2008). He demonstrated that inheritance included the passing on to offspring of discrete units of inheritance, we refer to these as genes now (Franklin, 2008).
Mendel investigated seven phonotypical traits and discovered there were inherited in predictable ratios determine by the phenotype of the parent’s pea plants was one of them (Franklin, 2008). He decided to investigate simple dominant-recessive inheritance traits; he used large numbers in his experiment and was meticulous in documenting his findings accurately (Franklin, 2008). He found that it was the dominant allele that could hide the recessive allele (Franklin, 2008). Mendel was able to produce hybrid offspring by mating two different true breeds of a pea plant variety through the process of hybridization (Franklin, 2008).
State Mendel’s first law: Also known as the law of Segregation.
The segregation of alleles and discrete inheritance of traits are described in this law (Singh, 2003). The law of segregation explains that when an individual makes gametes the chromosomes separate, and each gamete receives just one member of the persons chromosome pair (Singh, 2003). Meiosis is the process where alleles are segregated into two different gametes (Singh, 2003).
State Mendel’s second law: Also known as the law of independent assortment.
Mendel’s Second Law proposes that at least two distinct qualities are likewise formed by at least two pairs of various elements, and that each inherited pair separates autonomously from the others (Singh, 2003). Showing gametes are constantly made with a random representative of each pair of the components that decide phenotypical traits (Singh, 2003).
Mendel’s law of segregation and independent assortment reflect the rules of probability, the distribution of hereditary traits among offspring can be predicted using a simple tool called the punnet square (Singh, 2003).