Table 1

Table 1:
Differences between the Developed AELTMs/Ts and
the CMs/ELT Textbooks

The developed Authentic ELT Materials/Texts
(Developed AELTMs/Ts) Created Materials (ELT Textbooks)
(CMs/ELT Textbooks)
1. are not designed/prepared/developed for ELT pedagogical purposes,
2. are contents-based,
3. are tasks-based,
4. are contents and language-based,
5. are authentic, contextual, integrative, collaborative,
6. are student-centred,
7. are communicative language teaching
8. integrate the teaching of the vocabulary (knowledge) receptive and productive skills with the rules of language all at once
9. reflect the English knowledge and skills mostly used in real-world life,
10. are based on the needs of specific groups of students, or particular educational context,
11. provide learning reflection,
12. meet the curriculum of higher education,
13. meet the needs of students,
14. meet the need of the stakeholders,
15. arose reading interest,
16. designed and written for students,
17. describe instructional objectives,
18. compiled based on the the flexible learning patterns,
19. structure based on student needs and final competencies to be achieved,
20. give students the opportunity to practice a lot,
21. accommodates student difficulties,
22. provide summary,
23. communicative and semi-formal writing styles,
24. density based on the students’ needs,
25. package for instructional processes,
26. underline feedback on learning
27. explain how to learn the developed teaching materials,
28. use authentic/alternative /performance assessment to assess learning,
29. language is beyond the classroom,
30. engagement is prioritised, etc. 1. assume the interest of the reader,
2. are written for general English readers (students, teachers, lecturers and general public),
3. are designed to be extensively marketed,
4. do not necessarily explain the instructional goals,
5. linearly arranged,
6. structures are based on the logic field of science,
7. do not necessarily provide practices,
8. do not anticipate the student learning difficulties,
9. do not necessarily give a summary,
10. do not necessarily give a learning feedback,
11. have narrative writing styles but not communicative,
12. are very dense/thick,
13. learning themes are determined by the textbooks’ writers,
14. learning themes are general,
15. particularly focus on learning rules of language,
16. do not tailor to the demands of the curriculum,
17. do not suit to the students’ needs,
18. are contrary to the needs of the stakeholders,
19. are contrived to the real-world life,
20. do not fully pay attention to the specific groups of students or educational context,
21. provide less opportunity to orally practice,
22. focus on doing written exercises in the classroom,
23. memorising is part of its learning strategy,
24. emphasise on standardise tests, (selecting responses, true/false, matching, etc),
25. knowledge is individually constructed,
26. teacher-centred or lecture-based,
27. are less engaged in learning,
28. the teaching of the vocabulary (knowledge) receptive and productive skills and the rules of language are isolated,
29. teaching to the test (ELT materials taught to are meant for the testing’s purpose),
30. are designed for secondary education teaching’s purposes, etc.
These differences are processed from various reliable off and online references ; resources

Furthermore, the student-learning materials are categorized into two types. The printed-learning materials and the non-printed-learning materials. The printed materials are in the form of handouts (are papers containing a summary of information or topics which will be dealt with in a lecture or talk); books (set of printed pages held together in a cover that students can read); modules (are one of the separate parts of a course taught at a college); student’s worksheets (are prepared pages of exercises designed to specifically improve the student’s knowledge/understanding of a particular subject); textbooks (book containing facts/ knowledge about a particular subject that is used by people/students studying that subject) and teaching materials (books containing the authentic materials/texts/themes aiming at aiding the students to effectively learn or help the lecturers to effectively teach the subject) while non-printing are like cassette, mobile phone, computer, USM dish memory, CD-ROM, DVD, or the Internet (Tomlinson, 2001, p.66).
The brief descriptions of the definitions of the ‘materials’ in developing language teaching materials answer the question of why the English lecturers should develop his/her own materials (English lecturer-developed materials). Theoretically-empirically, the various studies and researches of the ELT experts brought up that there are at least three main raison d’ĂȘtre (reasons) that encourage the English lecturers to design and develop their language teaching materials. The first is ‘contextualisation (Block, 1991, p.213; O’Neil, 1982, p.106).’ The ELT Materials and themes taught so far present fictitious information, fictitious sentences’ construction, and so forth. For instances, in the assigned reading texts, the students were asked to read the stories about the crows, owls, Jane’s travel to New York City. In teaching/learning Grammar, the lecturers provide irrelevant example such as “Patrick drove his black Jaguar to North London,” etc. The questions, “how important were they for the students to know the stories? How urgent was the information? etc. Because there were no urgencies to present them in the EFL classroom, the ELT materials totally require being contextualised or authenticated to make them more relevant to the real-world situations.” The rules taught were correct. The materials/texts and themes presented were, however, devoid of context. In order to prevent the students from learning these fictitious facts, information and examples, the teaching materials, therefore, require being authenticated, or contextualised.
The second is timeless (Block, 1991, p.214). In today’s epoch, the ELT materials are demanded to adjust to and respond to the technological developments and progress. Even though the inauthentic materials were also interesting to learn, but it was hard to believe that, the inauthentic ideas are not similar to those authentic ones. The authentic ones more affect the students’ deep understanding of their subject matters as well as English skills’ enhancement. The third is personal touch (Block, 1991, p.214-215). Even though the English lecturer-developed materials are less heeded to and even underestimated, majority of the students greatly appreciate their lecturers who take or pay heed to their classroom managements, and develop their teaching materials. By seeing their lecturers’ seriousness preparing for the classes and materials, the students are automatically motivated to learn it. The English lecturers’ personal touch can affect the students’ English learning motivation.