PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ASHGOURD AND AMLA BASED JUICES
The consumption of beverages and ready to drink products has emphasized the need to enhance the research and development of beverages industry. The purpose of this study is to analyse the changes for the main physico-chemical characteristics: pH values, colours, acidity and moisture of juices. This research work aims at development of a ready to drink ash gourd and amla based juice thereby replacing the dairy beverages. From a detailed research on the Ash gourd and amla based products available in the market, this new product have been developed with the incorporation of sugar. In this research, the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is applied to optimize the composition and process conditions of the juices. This method is a collection of statistical and mathematical techniques for empirical model building.
Key words: Product Development, Ash gourd juice, Value added products.
Blending of fruit juices is a recognized process in fruit and vegetable technology for improving the beverage qualities such as to impart body to the blend and also to render it more attractive besides to regulate the brix to acid ratio to accepted level (Mathur Krishna (2003). Ash gourd is traditionally grown in India, Japan an d South-East Asia, even though it’s native is China. It is generally cultivated for its nourishing and medicinal qualities. “Raja Nirghantu” one of the ancient Indian book on therapeutics, provides a long list of medicinal virtues of this herb. In India the fruit, leaf and seed is declared to be laxative, diuretic, tonic, aphrodisiac, antiperiodic, antidiarrheal, specific for haemoptysis and other haemorrhages from internal organs. The fruit juice is administered (with or without liquorice) in cases of insanity, epilepsy and other nervous disorders and valued as an antidote for mercurial and alcoholic poisoning. The raw flesh is said to relive prickly heat, cure facial eruptions, skin softening agent, anti –wrinkle agent and an ash made out of the fruit is applied to painful wounds (Morton et al., 1971(b)). The whitish bloom of the Ash gourd covers only the fully matured fruit and it enhances the keeping quality of the fruit. It has been used as a food and medicine for thousands of years in the orient. Besides this, it is used in traditional oriental medicine for treatment for various ailments such as gastro intestinal, respiratory, heart problems, vermin fuge, diabetes mellitus and urinary diseases. (Mathad et al., 2005).
In spite of numerous health benefits the consumption of the fresh amla fruit remains low. Amla is highly acidic and astringent in taste due to which they are unpalatable and unsuitable for direct consumption. The excellent nutritive value and therapeutic value of the amla fruit offers an untapped potential for processing into several quality products. Hence, they are consumed mainly in the processed forms (Gudapaty et al., 2010). Amla fruit is processed into murabbas, candy, dried chips, jelly, squash and syrup (Barwal et al., 2010). To make amla a fruit of mass, products need to be developed which are attractive, tasty and which can be consumed as food items, but at the same time retain its nutritive and therapeutic values (Pathak, 2003). Among various amla food products, murabba (whole fruit preserve) is very popular.
• To standardize the procedure for preparing juice from the selected samples.
• To develop the ash gourd and amla based juice by using different variations.
• To Optimize the prepared juices.
Review of literature
Ash gourd is bland in taste and pale in colour, hence it is not consumed widely for the table purpose. The excellent nutritive and therapeutic value of this fruit offers a great potential for processing of Ash gourd fruits into quality products. To overcome degenerative diseases like diabetes mellitus, obesity, coronary heart problem and other general health problems we must consume higher proportions of fruits and vegetables.
Gopalan et al., (2007) reported that, Ash gourd has a high moisture content of (96.5 %), less fat (0.1 g) content and yielded less energy (10 k.cal), 30 mg of calcium and niacin content of 0.4 mg/100g of fruits. Singh et al., (1987) compared the physico-chemical constituents of anola fruits of different varieties like Banaras, Chakaiya, Deshi and Harpharori (Star gooseberry). They reported that Banaras showed high fruit weight (38.25 g) starch (1.54 %) , vitamin C (636.8mg/100g) and per cent edible portion (91.92). while ‘Harpharori’ and ‘Deshi’ varieties showed higher amount of acidity and total soluble solids respectively.
The processing steps for the formulation and processing of ash gourd and amla based juice and soup are discussed here. Process flow chart are provided in below.
Preparation of ash gourd and Amla blended juice
Take required quantity of juices from the extraction of Ash gourd(100ml),Amla(20%) and ginger(2%)
Blend all the above three juices
Cardamom for taste (pinch)
Standardization of juices
Variations Ash gourd juice (ml)
Amla juice (%)
Ginger juce (%)
Juice Yield (ml)
AGJ1 300 40 2 45 60 450
AGJ2 400 50 2 60 80 600
Physico –chemical components
Final products were analysed for physico-chemical constituents such as PH, colour, titrable acidity and moistureas indicated below.
Estimation of colour
The colour of the reconstituted juice and soup samples was also compared with Horticultural colour chart (The British colour council in collaboration with the Royal Horticultural Society Acc. No: 6942)
3.5.2 Estimation of PH
PH of the samples was measured using digital PH meter.
3.5.3 Estimation of titrable acidity (AOAC, 1980)
10g of samples were boiled in distilled water (50ml) for 10 min in hot water bath. Cooled and make up the volume into 100ml and filtered. A suitable aliquot of the filtrate was titrated against the standard 0.1 N NaOH solution using phenolphthalein as an indicator. Results were expressed as acidity as anhydrous citric acid
Acidity as Anhydrous title value x N of alkali x 70 x volume make up
citric acid = filtration taken x wt.of x 1000 X 100
for titratin(ml) sample
3.5.4 Estimation of Moisture
Moisture was determined by taking about 10g of sample in petri dish and dried in an oven at 600C till the weight of the petri dish with its content was constant. Each time before weighing, the petri dish was cooled in desiccators. Moisture content of the sample was expressed in g/100g of sample.
Moisture per cent = (W1- W2) x 100
W1 – W
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
The optimization of ashgourd and amla based juice and soup depends on the concentration of various ingredients and processing conditions. The results of optimization of AGJ1 and AGJ2 in terms of its physical and process conditions are discussed in this section.
Physico chemical properties of Juice
The physico-chemical properties of juice and soup product were evaluated. The parameters such as Moisture, Acidity and pH were studies and the results presented in table -1
Parameters variation-1 100(ml) variation-2
Moisture 91.09 90.71
Acidity 0.25 0.28
pH 4.20 4.35
The table results that 100ml of ash gourd and amla based variation-1 contain 91.09g of moisture, 0.25g of acidity and 4.20g of pH.
The table results that 100ml of ash gourd and amla based variation-2 contain 90.71g of moisture, 0.28g of acidity and 4.35g of pH.
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF JUICES
The different variation of juices in high value of moisture in v1-91.09,high valve of acidity in v2-0.28 and high value of pH in v2-4.35.
This work has shown that the locally available fruit juices contain safe level of physic-chemical elements for human consumption. Each juice provides a different range of physico-chemical components that are desirable in a diet. The levels of all metals were within the limit of the AGJ standard for fruit juice. chemical quality of the fruit juices as well as initiate increased public awareness programmes on contaminated and adulterated juices
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