Name: Kareem Tinto
Student I.D.: 816005892
Name of tutor &
Tutorial Class: Dr. Patrick Campbell: Fridays 2-3pm
Session number: No.2

Session date: September 12 th
, 2018
Session topic: Scientific Methods

Generally, I am a very open minded individual who loves learning. Signing up for this
foundation course, I was of the opinion that I would have learnt key terms, jargons,
approaches, techniques and grammatical rules that would aid in the composition of
writing about science. In the main, I was not aware of the offerings of this course and
after the first session I understood that this course is way different to the other writing
foundation courses that I would have done and that gave guidelines on how writing in
that field should be done. After obtaining a better understanding of the significance
and difference between Science and Technology, I immediately realised that my
perceptions of the terms in the past were not completely accurate from a holistic scope.
When I reflect on the concept of Science and Technology, I realise that both are
essentially centred around understanding and application of knowledge in a natural
environment and an environment constructed by man. For example, in the case of
Science versus Technology, it dictates that science deals with the natural world,
public universal knowledge and it is understanding oriented. Whilst on the other hand,
technology deals with the man-made world, public and private knowledge and it is
application oriented. (Dr. Omah-Mahraj, 2018). As I reflect on this very simple peace
of information I was made so much more aware of the difference between both terms

and was able to understand that science is not only about experiments and different
chemicals in conical flasks and other scientifically named instruments but also geared
towards understanding what is known or what has to be known (discovery). Before
this course, I looked at science and technology from a narrow viewpoint. Science, for
me, was about chemistry, biology and physics whilst technology was merely about
computers, software, applications and smart devices. Having learnt of the differences
between science and technology, I was able to appreciate that in order to benefit from
any scientific work weather solely scientific or technological, a process must be
involved. I am an auditory learner and though I try to pay utmost attention in lectures
to capture as much information as possible, I also solidify my learning experience
with videos.
The scientific method is said to be a set of procedures that scientists follow to gain
knowledge about the world. (, 2013, 0:23). Further, I was able to
comprehend the process associated in the scientific method which includes but not
limited to the given order therein. The method includes the posing of a question where
the proposed problem can be solved. This then leads to a hypothesis, where in general,
the answer to the question posed is contained therein and also referred to as
predictions. To test the hypothesis, what follows, is experimentation designed in such
a way, so as to prove or disprove the hypothesis. From the experiment, observation
becomes another integral process as it captures data based on what transpires in the
experiment through the medium of senses or scientific equipment. Having attained
data from the observations of the experiment, the said data must then be analysed and
compared to the results attained in keeping with the predictions made in the
hypothesis. Thereafter, a conclusion must be drawn which would sum up findings and
indicate whether or not the initial hypothesis was true or not by the observations made

and data gathered. (, 2013, 0:49). Having attained this in depth
understanding of the scientific process, I was compelled to make some comparison to
the accounts of other scientific sources. The core approach to any problem solving in
biology and other sciences is called the scientific method. (Khan, 2008). The process
varies a little according to their account, in that, it starts with an observation, then the
asking of a question, to the forming of a hypothesis, unto making predictions based on
the hypothesis, which leads to the testing of the hypothesis and ends with using the
results to make new hypotheses or predicts. (Khan, 2008). This seemed a bit
confusing to me at first but what I did as a Language major, was to compare the
interpretation of language across regions to this same scientific method and suddenly I
realised the similarity to process. In my mind’s eye, I have concluded that
interpretation of the process is what makes the difference or rather what creates
variety in the process which in general, is pretty much the same. For example, with
Spanish, persons living in Mexico would speak differently to persons living in
Colombia. Though they share the commonality of Spanish being their native language.
Similar too, in an English speaking environment Trinidadians speak in a different
manner to that of Jamaicans though there is the common ground of English as the
native language. Lastly, If I were to do an interpretation from English to Spanish
about the Scientific Method, the message would be relayed accurately yes, however,
the choice of vocabulary would be a bit different taking into account, context, cultural
difference and any other difference that would go with the territory. Literal
interpretations tend to convey a different message and can cause miscommunication
and result in problems. These three examples to me exemplify what actually happens
in the scientific method across the varied fields of science.
According to material covered in lecture, science in an attempt to uncover truths about

the natural world through the elimination of personal biases, emotions and false
beliefs, the question of whether science is objective or subjective to must be
understood. For me, reflecting on this, I never really gave consideration those
questions since, as human beings we do make choices from all of the above factors of
human emotion and moral. This session allowed my already existing open minded
personality to expand even further as I was able to appreciate that in order to
scientifically attain truth for any given problem, the way one thinks or the knowledge
one posses influences the outcome. Subjective and Objective thinking is actively
involved in the same scientific method mentioned above. Further, this scientific
process encapsulates three core methods of the approach that embodies inductive,
deductive and hypothetico reasoning. Each of which is highly reliant on observations
and associated with the proving of any hypothesis in the scientific method. (Dr.
Omah-Maharaj, 2018). Okay, all these terminologies though very familiar, I was not
able to explain when asked in the lecture session. I was able to capture in the simplest
terminology that each had the following meaning: Inductive reasoning involves
making a simple observation that later derives a more complex theory without having
obligation to confirm it. Deductive reasoning is a general rule that applies to a specific
case that is already known and uses that information to form testable predictions
whilst observing results to ascertain its validity or invalidity to the predictions made.
Lastly, hypotetico reasoning is enshrined on the ideas that inductive reasoning is not
completely accurate since no amount of evidence gathered for any particular case
nullifies the existence of evidence contrary to that which has been investigated.A
major aspect of hypotetico reasoning is particularly attributed to falsification. (Dr.
Omah-Maharaj, 2018). In my personal life, I can see how all three apply to
personality traits of various persons I interact with. This area really intrigued me

because I like to class myself as a deep thinker. Growing up I was very quiet and
timid and as society classes it, I was introverted. During this period of introversion, I
observed a lot of things inclusive of behavioural traits of those around me both being
immediate and distant. As I grew older, I became more and more outgoing and less
quiet. Again, as society labelled it, I was extroverted. I began to socialise more,
engage persons more and generally do things that I would not have done as an
introverted person. Learning these three methods of thinking, I am compelled to study
them at a deeper level. Naturally, I am always fascinated by what people do, the
thought process behind what they do and the type of interactions and relations that we
have with each other as human beings. Learning these will most definitely help me in
understanding people more, give me an even more open-minded approach to life and
ultimately, make me aware of the varied methods of approach that one can take in the
problem solving.
Ideally, I was tremendously surprised to learn that there exist so much in the world of
science and technology and the scientific method that goes along with the process of
solving any problem, situation, research or inquiry. Who would have ever thought that
science was linked to knowledge of the natural world? I for one did not have that
ideology. It is really interesting when one can be enlightened because with knowledge
comes understanding, which brings enlightenment, which brings power that aids one
to capitalise on opportunity and ultimately aids in the development of competence.
Session two would have been concluded and though in the two-hour session, I did not
leave as an expert on the given topic covered, I left with a peaked interest to learn
more of the topic and due to the resources online for the course and other external
resources, I was able to solidify concepts that I would have been introduced to in the
lecture session.

Reference list

Bypass Publishing (2013, December 10). Problem Solving: Inductive and Deductive
Reasoning Video file . Retrieved from

FreeSchool (2016, April 16). The Steps of Scientific Method for Kids- Science for
Children: FreeSchool Video file . Retrieved from

Khan Academy (2018). Biology and the Scientific Method. Retrieved from

Dr. Omah-Maharaj. (2018, September 12). Lecture Two: Scientific Methods Retrieved
Sprouts. (2017, October 5 ). The Scientific Method: Steps, Examples, Tips and
Exervise Video file . Retrieved from (2013, December 31). The Scientific Method: Steps, Terms and Examples
Video file . Retrieved from