An intervention is a program where strategies are assigned and implemented on students in order to improve their behavior and learning. Interventions have created change by helping students in improving their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and skills. According to Temple Grandin intervention is “a treatment method or an educational method that will work for one child and may not work for another child. The one common denominator for all of the young children is that early intervention does work and it seems to improve the prognosis”. The steps involved in implementing the intervention program are firstly, the problem has to be identified where a form of reading assessment must be first carried out. Secondly the problem has to be analyzed, where those students who find difficult in reading will be the ones whom the intervention program will be implemented on. Thirdly, develop a plan, what the teacher is going to do. The teacher will make a plan on what he/she will teach the particular students every week in order to improve the reading abilities. Fourthly, implement the plan, carry out the intervention, here the teacher implement what she has planned for per weeks, for example week one teach phonics, week two blend sounds, week three teach sight words, week four teach words and explain the meanings, week five teach reading sentences and in week six the teacher will than teach how to read. Lastly evaluate the plan- did the plan work? Here the teacher will assess the student reading and then find out if the intervention program had been effective or not.
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ONE
Dr.Subramanian.S. Assessing The Effectiveness of Individualized Integrated Intervention Strategies To Turn Around Slow Learners: An Experimental Study, Department Of Psychology Bharathier University: Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu,India. (2013)
This article , reviews on the slow learner, who are graded low in achieving academic skills and are usually ignored by other students. The slow learners are behind other students not only in education but in social, emotional and psychological well – being . The author stated that the early identification of students who are at risk for academic failure is very important process that needs more attention. As students advance in school, there difficulty in assignments and various subjects taken in class. Children’s performance depends on their motivation to sustain an active commitment and effort towards self-regulated learning. The researcher collected data by giving the pre-test, carrying out the integrated intervention program and finally conducted the post test. The article is useful for my research topic because it elaborates how integrated intervention program can benefit slow learners which in order will improve their academic performance.
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY TWO
Michael Solis et al, Reading Comprehension Interventions For Middle School Student With Learning Disabilities. (2009)
In this article, the researchers stated that reading to learn is an essential skill for middle school students for the grades 6 – 8, however the reading for understanding still remains to be a challenge for many students. They believe students have to read more in primary school with regards to secondary level. If a student isn’t able to read at primary level she/he will not be able to cope in secondary level. Without effective instructions to facilitate access to reading for understanding the reading difficulties at primary school level can lead to grim out comes for students with learning disabilities. This article is important for my research topic because it elaborates on reading comprehension, which is a skill that requires student to read, interact with text, and find meanings from stories or passages. The researchers stated instruction strategies in comprehension is imperative for helping students understand the purpose of reading.
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY THREE
Chase Young et al (2015) Reading Together: A Successful Reading Fluency Intervention, Literacy Research and Instruction. 67 – 81
According to this article, the researchers suggest that reading together is a feasible method of increasing students reading proficiency and can be delivered by trained volunteers. The researchers collected data by carrying out the strategy on students. The students in the treatment demonstrated increased reading expression, reading rate and overall reading scores. In their research, they have stated that many other researchers believe that reading fluency difficulties were the most common and more profound characteristics exhibited by primary students who were reformed for intervention reading services. One of the researchers described a method for developing reading fluency, an assisted reading strategy called the Neurological Impress Method(NIM), where the teacher and student sit side by side, with a copy of the same text. The teacher will slightly read ahead of the students while the student will chase the teacher’s reading. This strategy is one of a effective method which can improve the reading fluency of students. It will help me in my research to make my intervention program a successful one.
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY FOUR
Kai Yung (Brian) Tam et al. A Reading Instruction Intervention Program For English – Language Learners. Who Are Struggling Readers (2006). 79 – 63 (40)
In this article the authors used multiple baseline across students to evaluate the effects of an intervention program consisting of vocabulary instruction, error correction, and fluency building on oral reading rate and comprehension in a primary school. They used various steps in two different intervention conditions, the result showed massive improvement in students reading. The limitation of this article is that the strategy could only be successful if the number of slow readers are less. Thus this research study is useful for my research by giving ideas such as different intervention strategies, which will help in developing the skills of the slow readers.
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY FIVE
Traci J Busick. Effects of Reading Intervention Strategies For Elementary Students At Risk Of Reading Disabilities. (2013)
In this article, the review is on the students who are slow at reading. This article focuses on the various reading intervention strategies and which strategies are effective for all students. The limitations of this article is that all the results obtained was not positive. Some students, due to lacking reading potential and abilities, the students couldn’t improve. Yes, there are certain times when the results obtained are not positive, not all strategies are effective, because students have different learning abilities, all students are not same. The research states the early identification and knowing the needs of each student is more essential to provide most effective and appropriate intervention. This article suits my research topic as it elaborates on early identification of the student needs and also the different strategies needed by different students.