Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING Background of the Study Students have higher achievement with subject matter when they have a positive attitude towards the subject

Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

Background of the Study

Students have higher achievement with subject matter when they have a positive attitude towards the subject (Walker, 2006). Hence, attitude is one of the most crucial determinants of achievement in the students’ academic career. One of the challenges that Social Studies teachers face in teaching geography is that many young people do not feel that the lessons are valuable or interesting(Wade, 2002). If there is no feeling of relevance to the student, then their interest level and desire to learn is going to reflect that in a negative manner. If students lack interest, then their retention of ideas and concepts is going to be minimal.
In Malaysian schools, students generally have interest in geography in its various forms. However, the policy that positioned geography to be among the elective subjects, inadequate teaching materials, shortage of quality geography facilities and activities alongside the scope of various syllabi as well as methods of teaching have translated into constrains, thereby leading to loss of interest in participatory learning of geography as a subject among students. The need for motivation and enlightenment of students on the relevance of geography was identified as a matter of concern. It was suggested that adequate provision should be made to create awareness on the importance of geography. Enhancement of teaching methods and facilities should be primary while material and adequate financial aid should also be provided in all secondary schools (Akinnuoye et al., 2015).
In a secondary school curriculum in Nigeria, geography as a subject showed a distant and vital in nature and it seen to develop learner’s critical thinking ability. In spite of the efforts put by teachers to effectively teach geography in Nigerian secondary schools, students’ performance in the subject is not satisfactory. Poor performance in geography has been seen to be a result of negative attitudes of students towards the subject. In order to improve students’ performance in secondary school geography examinations, the conventional approach of teaching should be complemented with technological innovations which would help students to develop positive attitude towards it (Falode et al., 2016).
In the Philippines, K to 12 program leads to massive changes in the Philippine Social Studies education pedagogy, where the greater emphasis is focused towards the development of students’ attitude towards learning, academic performances, and the acquisition of 21st century learning skills among. However, these three key essential elements are also a source of problems as observed by teachers teaching geography in Social Studies classes, both in basic and higher education. In a typical Araling Panlipunan class, students’ show a lack of interest, poor participation and lack of comprehension on lessons pertinent to geography (Pana&Escarlos, 2017).
The circumstances cited above reflect the situation in the study locale in the University of Mindanao’s Basic Education Department. Teachers lament on the low motivation of students in Social Studies classes most particularly on the aspect of geographic learning. Geographic literacy is an important skill worth developing in an increasingly globalized world. Success will depend, in part, on students’ interest in the school subject, which in turn depends on the overall attitude towards this subject.
The confounding contexts mentioned above have urged the researchers to conduct a study on the students’ attitudes towards geography. The researchers believe that understanding students’ attitudes is important for supporting their achievements and interest towards the discipline. However, little research exists about the utility of the geographical curriculum or students’ attitudes towards geography. This investigation may contribute to the existing body of knowledge on students’ attitude towards geographic learning.

Statement of the Problem
The problem deals with the students’ attitudes towards the learning of geography. More specifically, it seeks answers to the following questions.
1. What are the students’ attitudes towards the learning of Geography in terms of:
1.1 geography as a school subject;
1.2 geography and the environment;
1.3 importance of geography; and
1.4 relevance of geography lessons on students’ lives?
2. Is there a significant difference in students’ attitudes towards Geography when analysed by gender?

Hypothesis

The hypothesis that follows will be tested at the 0.05 level of significance.
H0: There is no significant difference in students’ attitudes towards the learning of geography when analysed by gender.

Review of the Related Literature
The cited literature and studies were taken from various sources including books, journals and internet articles. Highlighted in this review are the students’ attitudes in learning geography in the areas of geography as a subject, geography and the environment, importance of geography, relevance of geography lessons on students’ lives, and gender-based attitudes in learning geography.

Students’ Attitudes towards Geography

Understanding students’ attitudes is important for supporting their achievements and interest towards a particular discipline. Research suggests that students are motivated to learn if the educational content is interesting, connected with everyday life and useful for their future development (Kubiatko, Janko ; Mrazkova (2012). Investigation of students’ attitudes towards geography is not an extensive field of research. Even so, some important studies do exist.
In another study on attitude towards learning Geography, Sudhakar & Sevakumar ( 2013), collected data from different students by random sample technique and they discovered that there was a significant relationship between attitude towards learning Geography and study involvement. However, it is usually accepted that students are motivated to learn if the content of the lesson is interesting, then flourishing connected with everyday activities by teachers, and it is proven to be useful for their development. Otherwise, the significance of understanding student’s attitude by supporting their interest, which would further influence their achievements and learning outcomes in a particular subject.
Geography is one of the important school subjects that deal with the relationship of man with his surroundings. In order to function as an aware citizen in the competitive global world, one has to possess the skills and knowledge of the world. Geography has a distinctive role in the curriculum in linking the disciplines of science and humanities. Those schools where geography was powerful, the subject contributed virtually to students learning as well as convincing students inquisitiveness about people and places. Geography also offers opportunities to develop a wide range of skills and knowledge.
Geography as a school subject. Geography as a discipline enables humans to understand the place where they are living in from a spatial perspective. It provides a bridge between the social sciences and the physical sciences, through the provision of an understanding of the dynamics of cultures, societies and economies on one hand, and those of physical landscapes and environmental processes on the other.
The study of geography stimulates an interest in and a sense of wonder about places. It helps young people make sense of a complex and dynamically changing world. It expands where localities are, how the spots and landscapes are formed, how people and the environment interact, and how distant range of economies, societies and environments are interconnected. It builds on learners’ own experiences to investigate places at all scales, from the personal to the global
As a school subject, geography has been described by Akintade(2012), as a very wide but interesting subject, which borders on other subjects such as the social studies or the social environmental studies and calls for a lot of hard work on the part of students to find learning pleasurable and obtain a mastery of concepts therein.
In the study of Akinnuoye et al.(2015), students were asked if they personally like to participate in geography class tests and examinations. Fifty two percent of female and 48% of male respondents strongly agreed while 63% female and 37% male respondents agreed that they hated geography class tests and examinations. In opposite, 33% of females and 67% of males’ students disagreed while 72% of females and 28% of males’ students no concur. Otherwise, 74.5% of the students agreed to hating tests and examinations on geography. It was further revealed that students generally have interest in geography in its various forms and their awareness in the prospects in Geography as a profession.
The study of Tomal (2010) determined the general attitudes of high school students towards geography and it aimed to find the reasons why students have positive or negative attitudes towards geography. According to the results of the research, geography is ranked fourth among the most favoured subjects. The fact that geography is a lesson which is closely connected with daily life and which helps students learn the environment they live in are the major factors for the students to like the lesson. The greatest reason for students who do not like geography is that they see it as a lesson which includes a lot of information that must be learnt by heart. Also, some students have low opinion of their teachers, which is another factor that makes students dislike the lesson.
Geography and the environment. Geography provides a rich context for students to develop a global outlook, an awareness of the influence of globalization and an appreciation of the importance of international cooperation in tackling global issues on the environment. Geographical education seeks to use this rich context to enable students to gain a deeper understanding of the changing world, the changing environment and the changing economy. On the other hand, the study of geography will help students develop a sound knowledge of his/her nation. It will help students to face challenges posed by population explosion, environmental pollution, regional socio-economic inequality, resource depletion, and an outpouring of many other environmental issues.
Jimenez (2016) successful geography and environmental studies education has a potential of changing people’s mind sets, and it can have a good impact on elaboration processes in the education. Focusing on geography and environmental studies as a crucial subject at school level, it is important to look how far this subject can contribute to the improvement of education. The main reason behind their opinions is they consider that they are close to the geography of the life sciences to learn more about the world as precisely as a means of better word to the world and as a scientific knowledge to sustain their existence in this world.
Aydin, Kaya and Coskun, (2011) researched secondary students’ views towards the role of geography lessons in building environmental consciousness. A total of 394 students participated in the survey and it was found that geography lessons were influential in building consciousness for the environment. Preponderance of the students implies that geography lessons give crucial role in discovering the social problems issues in their surroundings or in far location. Learning the causes and effects of environmental problems in the society, they build awareness for saving the natural resources, treating the environment more perceptible, realizing the importance of fresh and clean surroundings, and understanding the importance of cooperation in local, national and international where the solution of the problems will stop. Further, the study also revealed that the role of geography lessons in promoting environmental consciousness did not differ significantly by gender.
Importance of geography. The study of geography provides opportunities for students to develop their general intellectual capacity for life-long learning, and for generic skills such as critical thinking, communication, information processing, problem solving, decision-making etc. The inquiry approach embrace in geography in order of the students elaborate the important abilities that include in values clarification and values judgement, which are basic to the whole-person progression. Geographical education provides students with learning experiences which enable them to see the relationships between the individual, society and the environment, and through this to develop skills which can be transferred to other learning and life situations.
According to Gilbert M. Grosvenor for Geographic Education stated that our daily lives are implicate with geography. Each of us lives in a unique place and in constant interaction with our surroundings. Geographic knowledge and skills are essential for us to understand the activities and patterns of our lives and the lives of others. We move from place to place, aided by transportation and navigation system. We communicate using global networks of computers and satellites. We observed and learn about own culture and other cultures around the world. We want to satisfying lives and contribute to the welfare of our communities. Geographic knowledge and understanding is fundamental to reaching our goals, and in attaining a higher quality of life. As a means of importance, geography has been involved as a “gist” subject area in the three most current national education plans – America 2000, Goals 2000, and No Child Left Behind. Since 1985, the National Geographic Society has advocate a state – by – state programs to return geography to its equitable place in U.S. schools.
Al-Nofli (2010) conducted a phenomenological study to explore students’ perceptions about some aspects of school geography in two basic education schools in Oman. In-depth interviews were conducted with two groups of sixth and tenth grade students. Most students were positive in their views about the importance of geography. Students, throughout the interviews, considered geography of particular importance. They found the subject enjoyable and helpful in learning about countries, weather, maps, natural disasters, the world, and life styles. Responses to include a wide range of countries and cultures in geography curriculum clearly suggested that students had positive attitudes toward other countries and cultures around the world.
Relevance of geography in students’ lives. The study of geography provides students with a solid conceptual foundation. It provides exposure to higher order thinking. Further, it provides a spatial perspective towards socio-economic and environmental issues, a focus on citizenship and on national and global identity, and opportunities for developing generic skills such as the ability to analyse and synthesize, to solve problems, to communicate and to use information technology. The subject also prepares students for a range of career choices in which a global perspective, environmental ethics and awareness, and a sound sense of space and region are specifically needed.
Hopwood ( 2004) explore students conception of geography in one English comprehensive schools. Students viewed geography as a subject about the world, people and ways of life, countries, world problems, and a dynamic subject in which multiple perspective are consider. Student’s perception of main geography skills were map skills, life skills, understanding perspective of other people, and understanding geographic knowledge. Respecting other people’s perspective and developing attitudes of respect for cultures or the environment were the main values associated with geography.
In brief, geographical education will equip students to become geographically informed and inquiring people. These are people who see meaning in the arrangement of things in space; who see relations between people, place and environment; who ask geographical questions and find answers through enquiry; who use geographic knowledge and skills in solving problems; and who apply spatial and ecological perspectives to life situations.
In the study of Guimba, Aguino and Abbas(2016), it was revealed that the Grade 9 students in MSU-ILS valued geography and at the same time they rate geography as one of their most favorite subjects. They find geographic learning interesting because according to them, it was more concerned on their ancestors’ life in which they could trace where they came from. It was found out that the high image of geography was due to the students’ belief that the subject was relevant to their future occupations. In addition, they like geography and would like to spend more time in studying it. On other hand, they see the area as useful for a career or to help them understand their own country, or simply that its teachings were related to their lives.
Moreover, most students believed that being a responsible individual can be learned in geography. Though some of them viewed those Social Studies as a subject is more on memorizing, dates and events during the interviews, but still they find it important to study this subject in the development of their lives.
Gender-based attitudes towards learning geography. The study of Kubiatko, Janko and Mrazkova (2012) was focused on finding out the influence of gender on the four dimensions of geography attitudes. The significant influence of gender was observed only in the dimension “Geography as a school subject”. Boys achieved higher score in comparison with girls. The boys expressed more positive attitude on geography lessons, because for them, this subject is easier. Additionally, boys would like to have geography lessons more often than girls.
The findings of the study above indicated that the influence of gender was not significant in the dimension “Geography and the environment”. Geography has been found to be equally important for boys and girls. Both genders were also found to have similar attitudes on the relevance of geography on their student lives. From the results it is obvious that the students’ attitude on learning geography is influenced by gender only in a single aspect.
The cited literature helped the researchers in elucidating the students’ attitudes towards the learning of geography. Further, the information clarified the parameters of the variable. The literature and studies were likewise helpful in the design of the present study and the formulation of the instrument for the gathering of the needed data.

Theoretical Framework
The study is anchored on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) of Eagly and Chaiken(1993). According to this theory, individual behaviour is driven by behavioural intentions which are a function of an individual’s attitude towards the behaviour, the subjective norms surrounding the performance of the behaviour, and the individual’s perception of the ease with which the behaviour can be performed (behavioural control).Rational planned behaviour is controlled by an intention to engage in that behaviour and this, in turn is controlled by three factors which can be loosely seen as attitudes related to that behaviour, what the person thinks others will think of them engaging in that behaviour (subjective norm) and whether the behaviour is seen as possible (perceived behavioural control). For example, suppose a school student has the choice of taking a geography course the following year. His/her intention to take the course will be influenced by their attitudes related to geography, what the others will think of them if they take the course and whether it is relatively easy to take the course.
The theory above is supported by the Theory of Reasoned Action (Azjen, 2002), which states that there will be a strong intention to perform the behaviour when attitudes are more favourable, the subjective norm is positive and there are few perceived behavioural controls. In addition, the degree to which the actual control over the behaviour will determine when the person will carry out the intention when the opportunity arises. At last, given an adequate stage of actual restrain over the behaviour, people are look forward to keep observe their goals when the chance up rise (Ajzen, 2002).

Significance of the Study
The findings of the study on students’ attitudes towards the learning of geography may benefit the following.
Curriculum planners. The findings generated by the study may inform curriculum planners on which learning content in geography to highlight for the purpose of providing the students with interesting subject matter within the curriculum that may promote enthusiasm among learners.
Educators. The results may offer insights to Social Studies teachers on ways to improve pedagogy that may motivate students in learning geography.
Students. The findings of this research work may help students understand the value of geographic knowledge and develop in them a sense of interest in the subject.

Scope and Limitations
The study explores the students’ attitudes towards the learning of geography. Students in the secondary level of the Basic Education Program of the University of Mindanao are the selected informants of this research. Survey questionnaires will be administered to the purposively respondents and the study will be conducted during the second semester of the school year 2017-2018. One limitation of this research is the size of the sample. The survey is limited to the 59 respondents, which is just a very small fraction of the universe of the population. A much larger sample may have provided more meaningful results. However, the findings are still valuable in determining the attitudes of students towards the learning of geography. Another limitation is the use of close-ended items in the questionnaire. An in-depth analysis of the responses could have been made if open-ended items were incorporated. Nevertheless, the available information could still offer the needed data for analysis of students’ attitudes on the subject.

Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined conceptually and operationally to facilitate a better understanding of the study.
Attitude. Attitude is the tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain idea, object, person, or situation (Peters, 2005). In this study, the term refers to the respondents’ positive or negative responses on the dimensions of “Geography as a subject”, “Geography and the environment”, “Importance of geography”, and “Relevance of geography in students’ lives”.
Geography. According to Sack and Petersen(1998), geography is a science that connects natural and human phenomena. In this study, the term refers to a field in Social Studies integrated in the K to 12 programs of the Basic Education Curriculum.

Chapter 2
METHOD
Presented in this chapter are the research design, research locale, research respondent, research instrument, data gathering procedure, and statistical tools.

Research Design
The present study is of the descriptive survey design. According to Best and Kahn (2007), the descriptive survey method of research concerns itself with the present phenomena in terms of conditions, practices, beliefs, processes, relationships or trends, invariably. It is devoted to the gathering of information about prevailing conditions or situations for the purpose of description and interpretation. This type of research method is not simply amassing and tabulating facts but includes proper analyses, interpretation, comparisons, identification of trends and relationships. Further, it is concerned not only with the characteristics of individuals but with the characteristics of the whole sample thereof.
The survey research employs applications of scientific method by critically analysing and interpreting data, and by arriving at generalization and prediction. This method of research is appropriate for the present study since it is being undertaken to study the students’ attitudes towards Geography. Hence, the descriptive survey research method was adopted.
Research Locale
The study will be conducted in the University of Mindanao, Matina Campus, particular in College of Teacher Education. It is located in Davao City and it is a non-sectarian school offering the most number of academic programs in this part of the country.

Research Respondent
The purpose of this investigation is to determine the students’ attitude towards the learning of geography. Students from the Bachelor of Elementary Education (BEED) of the University of Mindanao, Matina Campus are the respondents of the study. The qualifications to be part of the survey are for the respondent to be officially enrolled for the school year 2017-2018. The population distribution is shown in Table 1.
A sample consisting of 59 purposively selected respondents will represent the population of interest. According to Bernard (2002), the purposive sampling technique is a type of non-probability sampling that is most effective when one needs to study a certain cultural domain. The purposive sampling technique, also called judgment sampling, is the deliberate choice of an informant due to the qualities the informant possesses. It is a non-random technique that does not need underlying theories or a set number of informants. Simply put, the researcher decides what needs to be known and sets out to find people who can and are willing to provide the information by virtue of knowledge or experience.
Research Instrument
The instrument that will be used in this study is adoptive and revise survey questionnaire. It is a 18-item questionnaire designed to draw information on the respondent’s attitude towards geography based on the domains of geography as a school subject, geography and the environment, importance of geography, and relevance of geography lessons to a student’ s life.
The level of students’ attitudes towards geography will be based on the average weighted mean. These scores will be scaled using the exact limits with descriptive equivalents as follows:

Range of Scores Descriptive Rating Interpretation
4.50 – 5.00 Very High The students hold highly positive attitudes towards the measure described in the item.
3.50 – 4.49 High The students hold positive attitudes towards the measure described in the item.
2.50 – 3.49 Moderate The students hold neither positive nor negative attitudes towards the measure described in the item.
1.50 – 2.49 Low The students hold negative attitudes towards the measure described in the item.
1.00 – 1.49 Very Low The students hold very negative attitudes towards the measure described in the item.
For the necessity of refinement, validation and comprehensive content of the instrument, the researchers will consult knowledgeable persons for comments, corrections, and suggestions on the proposed instrument. Their recommendations will be made basis for revision and modification.

Data Gathering Procedure
The researchers will observe the necessary and appropriate protocol in conducting the study on students’ attitudes towards Geography. First, a letter asking permission to conduct the study will be addressed to the Dean of Academics of the University of Mindanao. Upon approval, the Department Head of the College of Education of the University of Mindanao will be informed of the survey through formal communication. Subsequent to the acknowledgment of the Department Head, the survey will be administered to the identified respondents. The completed questionnaires shall then be collected, tallied and analysed using the appropriate statistical tools.

Statistical Tools
The following statistical tools will be used to analyse the data on students’ attitudes towards Geography.
Mean. This tool will be used to give descriptions to the students’ attitudes towards geography.
T-test. This statistical tool will be utilized to determine the significant difference in student attitudes towards geography when analysed by gender.

Chapter 3

Presentation and Analysis of Findings

Presented in this section are the discussion on the presentation and analysis of findings. The following headings center the discussions: level of students’ attitudes towards the learning of geography and meaningful variation in students’ attitudes towards geography when analysed by gender.
Students’ Attitudes towards
The Learning of Geography
Shown in Table 2 is statistical result on the level of students’ attitudes towards the learning of geography as measured through the following indicators: geography as a school subject, geography and the environment, importance of geography, and relevance of geography lessons students’ lives. The overall mean rating for the students’ attitudes towards learning of geography is 3.6403 or high. This indicates that the students hold positive attitudes towards the learning of geography.
Geography as a School Subject. In terms of geography as a school subject, the mean rating posted a value of 3.3559 or moderate. This indicates that the students hold neither a positive nor negative attitude towards learning geography as a school subject. Furthermore, the result is similar to that of Akkinuoye, et al (2015) who stated that students in their study generally have interest in geography in its various forms and their awareness in the prospects in Geography as a profession. Shown in table 3 is the count and percent of respondents by item on geography as a school subject
Table 2
Students’ Attitudes towards the Learning of Geography
Indicators Mean Standard Deviation Descriptive Equivalent
Geography as a School Subject 3.3559 0.41368 Moderate
Geography and the Environment 3.5198 0.54411 High
Importance of Geography 3.9322 0.51275 High
Relevance of Geography in Students’ Lives 3.7051 0.66887 High
Overall 3.640. 0.39880 High

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Table 3. Count and percent of respondents by item on geography as a school subject

Question Response Count %
1. I like geography more than other subjects. Always 0 0.0
Often 2 3.4
Sometimes 25 42.4
Seldom 30 50.8
Never 2 3.4
Total 59 100.0
2. I find geography lesson difficult for me Always 6 10.2
Often 15 25.4
Sometimes 27 45.8
Seldom 11 18.6
Never 0 0.0
Total 59 100.0
3. It is necessary to pay attention to understand geographical content Always 0 0.0
Often 3 5.1
Sometimes 11 18.6
Seldom 28 47.5
Never 17 28.8
Total 59 100.0
4. I believe that geography is one of the easiest subjects Always 4 6.8
Often 10 16.9
Sometimes 27 45.8
Seldom 12 20.3
Never 6 10.2
Total 59 100.0
5. I would like to have geography lessons more often Always 0 0.0
Often 8 13.6
Sometimes 23 39.0
Seldom 24 40.7
Never 4 6.8
Total 59 100.0

Geography and the Environment. In terms of geography and the environment, the mean rating is 3.5198 or high. This means that the students hold positive attitudes towards learning geography and the environment. Geography provides a rich context for students to develop a global outlook, an awareness of the influence of globalization and an appreciation of the importance of international cooperation in tackling global issues on the environment. Shown in table 4 is the count and percent of respondents by item on geography and the environment
Importance of Geography. In terms of importance of geography, results show a mean rating of 3.9322 or high. This connotes that students hold a positive attitude towards the importance of learning geography. This supports the findings of Al-Nofli (2010) in his qualitative study. He found out that most students were positive in their views about the importance of geography. Students, throughout the interviews, considered geography of particular importance. They found the subject enjoyable and helpful in learning about countries, weather, maps, natural disasters, the world, and life styles. Responses to include a wide range of countries and cultures in geography curriculum clearly suggested that students had positive attitudes toward other countries and cultures around the world. Shown in table 5 is the count and percent of respondents by item on importance of geography.
Relevance of Geography in Students’ Lives. In terms of relevance of geography in students’ lives, results show a mean of 3.7051 or high. This means that students’ hold a positive attitude towards relevance of geography in their lives. This supports the study of Guimba, Aguino and Abbas (2016). It was revealed that the Grade 9 students in MSU-ILS valued geography and at the same time they rate geography as one of their most

Table 4. Count and percent of respondents by item on geography and the environment

Question Response Count %
1. Geographical knowledge can help in solving a problem which is connected with the environment. Always 6 10.2
Often 15 25.4
Sometimes 22 37.3
Seldom 10 16.9
Never 6 10.2
Total 59 100.0
2. I consider the processes taking place the environment very interesting. Always 0 0.0
Often 4 6.8
Sometimes 16 27.1
Seldom 26 44.1
Never 13 22.0
Total 59 100.0
3. Geography as a subject is able to explain the impact of humans on the nature Always 0 0.0
Often 2 3.4
Sometimes 19 32.2
Seldom 25 42.4
Never 13
Total 59 100.0

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Table 5. Count and percent of respondents by item on importance of geography

Question Response Count %
1. I use geographical knowledge in everyday life. Always 0 0.0
Often 0 0.0
Sometimes 16 27.1
Seldom 23 39.0
Never 20 33.39
Total 59 100.0
2. I will use geographical knowledge in my future job. Always 0 0.0
Often 0 0.0
Sometimes 12 20.3
Seldom 26 44.1
Never 21 35.6
Total 59 100.0
3. I believe that geography compare to other subject is important Always 1 1.7
Often 3 5.1
Sometimes 14 23.7
Seldom 26 44.1
Never 15 25.4
Total 59 100.0
4. I believe that geography as a subject enables us to understand the thinking and behaviour of the people from other countries. Always 0 0.0
Often 5 8.5
Sometimes 22 37.3
Seldom 24 40.7
Never 8 13.6
Total 59 100.0
5. Geographical knowledge is important for understanding other subjects. Always 0 0.0
Often 1 1.7
Sometimes 18 30.5
Seldom 21 35.6
Never 19 32.2
Total 59 100.0
favourite subjects. Shown in table 6 is the count and percent of respondents by item on relevance of geography in students’ lives.
Significant Difference of the Students Attitudes towards Learning Geography when Analysed by Gender
In terms of the meaningful variation in the students’ attitudes towards learning geography when analysed according to gender. Results showed that there is no meaningful variation. This signifies that male and female respondents of the current study have no meaningful difference in their attitudes towards learning geography with an overall P-value of 0.402. Both genders do not show a significant variation in terms of their attitudes towards geography and the environment, and importance of geography with P-values of 0.660, and 0.105 respectively. In terms of attitudes towards geography as a school subject and relevance of geography in their lives, it shows a meaningful variation result with a P-value of 0.005 and 0.009 respectively.
The result of the T-Test analysis, contradicts to the study of Kubiatko, Janko and Mrazkova (2012). Though the current study and the study of the Kubiatko et al posted a meaningful variation in the geography as school subject when analysed according to gender, the current study shows higher levels of attitudes of female respondents compared to the males as opposite to the result of Kubiatko et al. Furthermore, the said study posted a no significant difference on other dimensions in the current study. On the other hand, both studies have similar results when it comes to the relevance of geography to the lives of the study for it posted a not meaningful variation result.
Reflected in Table 7 is the overall result obtained from the preceding tabulations which shows that there are meaningful variations when analyzed according to the

Table 6. Count and percent of respondents by item on relevance of geography in students’ lives

Question Response Count %
1. Geography lesson develop my knowledge and skill. Always 1 1.7
Often 4 6.8
Sometimes 11 18.6
Seldom 28 47.5
Never 15 25.4
Total 59 100.0
2. I am bored in geography lesson Always 7 11.9
Often 8 13.6
Sometimes 21 35.6
Seldom 16 27.1
Never 7 11.9
Total 59 100.0
3. I am interested in geography lesson Always 1 1.7
Often 3 5.1
Sometimes 16 27.1
Seldom 24 40.7
Never 15 25.4
Total 59 100.0
4. Teacher’s explanations in geography lessons are interesting for me Always 1 1.7
Often 6 10.2
Sometimes 8 13.6
Seldom 30 50.8
Never 14 23.7
Total 59 100.0
5. I like my geography teacher Always 2 3.4
Often 2 3.4
Sometimes 16 27.1
Seldom 23 39.0
Never 16 27.1
Total 59 100.0

respondents’ gender. Furthermore, the null hypothesis is accepted since the computed P-value for students’ attitudes towards learning geography is 0.402 which is above the 0.05 level of significance.
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Table 7. Meaningful Variation Of The Students’ Attitudes Towards The Learning Of Geography When Analyzed By Gender
Item Gender M SD t df p
I like geography more than other subjects male 3.4138 .56 -1.578 56.241 .120
female 3.6667 .66
I find geography lesson difficult for me male 2.6897 .76 -.332 53.912 .741
female 2.7667 1.00
It is necessary to pay attention to understand geographical content male 3.8621 .78 -1.263 56.849 .212
female 4.1333 .86
I believe that geography is one of the easiest subjects male 2.8621 .87 -1.800 54.550 .077
female 3.3333 1.12
I would like to have geography lessons more often male 3.2069 .72 -1.906 56.081 .062
female 3.6000 .85
Geographical knowledge can help in solving a problem which is connected with the environment. male 3.3793 1.08 3.401 55.895 .001
female 2.4667 .97
I consider the processes taking place the environment very interesting male 3.5517 .82 -2.389 56.933 .020
female 4.0667 .82
Geography as a subject is able to explain the impact of humans on the nature male 3.7241 .70 -.993 54.422 .325
female 3.9333 .90
I use geographical knowledge in everyday life. male 3.8966 .77 -1.673 56.941 .100
female 4.2333 .77
I will use geographical knowledge in my future job. male 3.8966 .72 -2.760 56.375 .008
female 4.4000 .67
I believe that geography compare to other subject is important male 3.6897 .84 -1.454 56.523 .152
female 4.0333 .96
I believe that geography as a subject enables us to understand the thinking and behavior of the people from other countries. male 3.4483 .68 -1.330 52.952 .189
female 3.7333 .94
Geographical knowledge is important for understanding other subjects male 3.8621 .78 -1.091 56.644 .280
female 4.1000 .88
Geography lesson develop my knowledge and skill male 3.9655 .73 -1.091 56.644 .280
female 3.8000 1.09
I am bored in geography lesson male 3.4483 .90 2.094 51.694 .041
female 2.8333 1.31
I am interested in geography lesson male 3.7931 .77 2.094 51.694 .041
female 3.8667 1.07
Teacher’s explanations in geography lessons are interesting for me male 3.9655 .73 .933 49.557 .355
female 3.7333 1.14
I like my geography teacher male 4.0690 .88 1.872 56.125 .066
female 3.6000 1.03
Note: male – 49 female – 50 *Equal variances not assumed

We will present the summary, conclusions, and recommendations based on the analysis and interpretation of the data obtained.
Summary
The problem deals with the students’ attitudes towards the learning of geography. More specifically, it sought to answer the following questions.
3. What are the students’ attitudes towards the learning of Geography in terms of:
3.1 geography as a school subject;
3.2 geography and the environment;
3.3 importance of geography; and
3.4 relevance of geography lessons on students’ lives?
4. Is there a significant difference in students’ attitudes towards Geography when analysed by gender?
The study tested the null hypothesis stating that there is no significant difference in the students’ attitudes towards the learning of geography when analysed according to gender.
This made use of descriptive survey as research design. It included 59 student respondents who took up Bachelor of Elementary Education (BSED) at the University of Mindanao. These sampling technique used is random sampling with 29 male respondents and 30 female respondents.
The following were the findings of the study:
1. The students’ attitudes towards learning geography yielded the following result: geography as school subject is 3.3559; geography and the environment is 3.5198; importance of geography is 3.9322; and relevance of geography to the lives of students is 3.6508. The overall mean rating is 3.7051.
2. The statistical test of the significant difference of students’ attitudes towards learning geography in terms of gender yielded the following result: geography as school subject is 0.005; geography and the environment is 0.660; importance of geography is 0.009; and relevance of geography to the lives of students is 0.0105. The overall P-value is 0.402 which is greater than the tabular value of 0.05.
Conclusions
Based on the previous findings, it can be concluded that:
1. The students’ attitudes towards learning geography are high. This indicates that the teacher education student’s holds positive attitudes towards learning geography.
2. There is no significant difference of the students’ attitudes towards learning geography when analysed by gender from the data that has been interpreted due mainly to the fact that both males and females have similar results when it comes to the relevance of geography to the lives of the study. This signifies that males and females respondents of the current study have no significant difference in their attitudes towards learning geography.
Recommendations
1. Curriculum planners may plan, draft and develop meaningful ways to highlight the importance of learning geography in the classroom. Moreover, they may provide or included contents which can stimulate the interest of learners in the learning the said subject. They may also conduct seminars, trainings, or workshops for teachers to be updated on the latest trends to teach geography for them to apply this in the classroom setting.
2. Educators or teachers may explore different strategies in teaching geography so that they can motivate their students to be more engaging in the subject. They may include ways for students to be more interested in learning and mastering geography and other social science related fields.
3. Students may explore more contents about geography and develop their sense of interest towards the subject. They are recommended to discover the beauty of geography for it is relevant to their lives.

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