1.0Background to the Study
Wastes are spent materials. They are any materials that are discarded after its primary use, as it has been deemed unusable. Historically, the amount of wastes generated by mankind was insignificant mainly due to the low population densities, coupled with the fact that there was very little exploitation of natural resources.(Chukwuemeka, 2011) Common wastes produced during the early ages were mainly ashes and human and biodegradable wastes and these were reused as manure and some, discarded. Biodegradable waste typically originates from plant or animal sources, which are broken down by bacteria, fungi or by the activities of other micro-organisms. Non-biodegradable waste cannot be changed to a harmless natural state by the action of bacteria, and may therefore constitute hazard to the environment over a long period of time. With the advent of industrial revolution (1760-1840), waste management became a critical issue. This was due to the population explosion coupled with the massive migration of rural dwellers to urban centres during the 18th century. Consequent upon this, was a massive generation of wastes that posed threat to human survival and the environment.
Today, the generation and disposal of waste is an intrinsic part of any developing or industrial society. Waste, both from domestic and commercial sources has grown significantly in Nigeria over the past decade. Every time a householder shops at the Store and open market, the individual contributes to the mountain of waste. (Jimoh, 2005) According to Chukwukelo Chukwogo, Nigeria generates 24 million tons of waste annually (The Sun, August 2017). The population of urban dwellers in Nigeria has more than doubled in the last 15 years (Jimoh, 2005). This population explosion has aggravated the problems associated with waste disposal.
Studies have shown that the volume of waste does not actually constitute the problem but the ability or inability of governments and the public to keep up with the task of waste management. The quality of life of the citizenry is affected by poor standard of living, which affects aesthetic abilities and the state of health of the people. A corollary to the aforementioned is that improper waste management procedures can constitute hazards to the society. The existing waste management system, where the garbage is collected from the streets, houses and other establishments on quotidian basis, has been largely ineffective.
Currently, most operations of municipal waste collectors focused on emptying containers according to predefined schedules (Fixed route collection process). This is sufficiently inefficient. One of the main attractions of IoT is its ability to efficiently control devices. In the waste industry, the goal is to maximize productivity. One way to achieve this feat is to minimize cost through the adaptation of effective but proficient resource management tools, while at the same time automate the existing process.
The IOT could be a pathfinder in modernizing waste collection methods with an impeccable database. It can change the way waste collectors carry on with their operations, know more information about their bins and bring change in the method of waste collection. Consumers on the other hand, will be able to pay reduced premium and other related costs. In short, the process of providing insurance, servicing the policies and settling the claims will be much more efficient and transparent in terms of processes. (Patil et al). A proper waste management system is necessary to avoid spreading some deadly diseases. Managing the smart bins by monitoring the status of it and accordingly taking the decision. This waste is further picked up by the municipal corporations to finally dump it in dumping areas and landfills. But due to lack of resources, ineffective groundwork, some waste is not collected which poses serious health hazard to the surrounding environment (Khan, Aliasgar, Naik et al, 2017). In the proposed system, multiple waste bins will be used and these bins will be provided with low-cost embedded devices which will help in tracking the level of the garbage bins and a unique ID will be provided for each of the waste bins so that it is easy to identify which garbage bin is full (Khan,et al, 2017). The Smart dust bins are connected to the internet to get the real time information of the smart dustbins. These dustbins are interfaced with arduino uno based system with ultrasonic sensors.
When the level reaches the threshold limit, the device will transmit the level of the trash, along with the unique ID provided and the location of the bin, to the concerned authority with the help of Internet and an immediate action can be made to clean the dustbins. An ultrasonic sensor will detect the level of waste in the bin using height, and send the appropriate level to the system. We would introduce a proximity sensor to detect presence of people who want to dispose waste. A PIR sensor is a motion detector sensor which detects the heat emitted naturally by human. Whenever a person is in the field of vision nearer to the garbage bin, the sensor is triggered and the servo motor automatically opens the smart bin for the disposal of waste. In order to prevent decaying smell around the bin, a harmless chemical (like baking soda) sprinkler will be used as soon as the smell detector senses the decaying smell. As a filled dustbin will be made to stay shut even after sensing human presence, the location of the nearest serviceable bin will be displayed with the help of an LCD.
The greatest problem regarding waste management in developing countries begins at the very beginning of the process. Due to lack of proper systems for disposal and collections, wastes and garbage end up on the roads and surrounding. With the existing methods of collecting and disposal it is near impossible to manage such amount of waste in the future as around 30% of waste end up on the roads and public places due to ineffective disposing and collecting methods. There is no systematic methodology for treating the collected garbage thus most of them end up in landfilling water channels, making the environment unhealthy. The prime impediment of implementing smart waste management system based on IoT in a developing country is the social and economic infrastructure of the country itself. The initial stage of this system comprises of proper disposal and collection, which is the biggest challenge. In addition, to motivate and influence people to follow proper waste disposal methods is also important (Rakib ,Golam, Labib et al, 2017). Therefore, the concise statement of the problem is to optimize cost by:
Maximizing the volume of the waste bin
Minimizing number of trips taken by the waste vehicle to the various locations
Minimize fuel consumption
Minimize time taken to get to the various points of garbage collection.
1.2 Aims and Objectives
The purpose of the project is to investigate the possibility of successfully managing the monitoring of waste in the university of Lagos and also to design and build a prototype for the detection of the level of trash inside the dustbin. A harmless chemical sprinkler will also be used to avoid the decaying smell around the bin.
The main objective of our proposed system are as follows;
To provide real time information on the level of waste in the dustbin and send it to the appropriate authorities.
To detect the presence of people that want to dispose trash
To manage awful smell that may arise from decaying waste in the bins, prior to the time of collection.
To reduce manpower required to handle the garbage collection.
1.3 Significance of the project
Waste management using Internet of things can be applied in optimization of route planning and scheduling in waste collection. This can lead to significant reduction of cost. This technology has the potential to eliminate all forms of environmental contamination and human threatening diseases.
The advantages of this mode of monitoring wastes include the following;
Our smart operating system enables two way communication between the dustbin deployed in the city and service operator. Therefore the focus is only on collection of route based fill level of the containers.
Historical information on collections helps adapt the deployment of containers to the actual needs of the city, therefore reducing the number of containers that clutter up the road and increasing public parking spaces.
It keeps the surroundings clean and green, free from bad odour of wastes, emphasizes on healthy environment and keep cities more beautiful.
Reducing manpower required to handle the garbage collection.
1.4 Scope and limitations
The scope of this study is to build an efficient system that monitors and tracks the level of waste in the garbage bins and informs the appropriate authority about the level of garbage collected in the garbage bins via a web page. It would make use of a smell detector to detect offensive smell caused by decaying waste and take care of this with the aid of harmless chemical sprinklers. It would also detect the presence of people that want to dispose waste and open the lid for them. For this the system uses ultrasonic sensors placed over the bins to detect the garbage level and compare it with the garbage bins depth. The system makes use of AVR family microcontroller, LCD screen, Wi-Fi modem for sending data and a buzzer. The system is powered by a 12V transformer. The LCD screen is used to display the status of the level of garbage collected in the bins, and a web page is built to show the status of the bins to the authority monitoring it. The web page gives a graphical view of the garbage bins and highlights the garbage collected in color in order to show the level of garbage collected. The LCD screen shows the status of the garbage level. The system puts on the buzzer when the level of garbage collected crosses the set limit. Thus this system helps to keep the city clean by informing about the garbage levels of the bins by providing graphical image of the bins via IOT Gecko web development platform. Sensing of refuse dumped around the neighborhood of the waste bins, separation of liquid and solid waste and defining path optimization strategies for garbage collection goes beyond the scope of this work.
Main Equipments Used In The Smart Waste Management System.
AVR family microcontroller
Arduino uno compiler
IOTGeckoMC Programming Language: Embedded C
A waste container is a container for temporarily storing waste, and is usually made out of metal or plastic. The curbside dustbins usually consist of three types: trash cans (receptacles made of metal or plastic), dumpsters (large receptacles similar toskips) and wheelie bins (light, usually plastic bins that are mobile). All of these are emptied by collectors, who will load the contents into a garbage truck and drive it to a landfill, incinerator or consuming crush facility to be disposed of.
A special sonic transducer is used for the ultrasonic proximity sensors, which allows for alternate transmission and reception of sound waves. The sonic waves emitted by the transducer are effected by an object and received back in the transducer. After having emitted the sound waves, the ultrasonic sensor will switch to receive mode. The time elapsed between emitting and receiving is proportional to the distance of the object from the sensor. Ultrasonic sensors generate high-frequency sound waves and evaluate the echo which is received back by the sensor, measuring the time interval between sending the signal and receiving the echo to determine the distance to an object.
Arduino is a software company, project, and user community that designs and manufactures computer open-source hardware, open-source software, and microcontroller-based kits for building digital devices and interactive objects that can sense and control physical devices 3. The project is based on microcontroller board designs, produced by several vendors, using various microcontrollers. These systems provide sets of digital and analog I/O pins that can interface to various expansion boards (termed shields) and other circuits. The boards feature serial communication interfaces, including Universal Serial Bus (USB) on some models, for loading programs from personal computers. For programming the microcontrollers, the Arduino project provides an integrated development environment(IDE) based on a programming language named Processing, which also supports the languages C and C++.
The first Arduino was introduced in 2005, aiming to provide a low cost, easy way for novices and professionals to create devices that interact with their environment using sensors and actuators.
SOFTWARE OF ARDUINO :The Arduino project provides the Arduino integrated development environment (IDE), which is a cross-platform application written in the programming language Java. It originated from the IDE for the languages Processing and Wiring. It is designed to introduce programming to artists and other newcomers unfamiliar with software development. It includes a code editor with features such as syntax highlighting, brace matching, and automatic indentation, and provides simple one-click mechanism to compile and load programs to an Arduino board. A program written with the IDE for Arduino is called a “sketch” 4. The Arduino IDE supports the languages C and C++ using special rules to organize code.
A breadboard is a construction base for prototyping of electronics. Originally it was literally a bread board, a polished piece of wood used for slicing bread. In the 1970s the solderless breadboard (AKA plugboard, a terminal array board) became available and nowadays the term “breadboard” is commonly used to refer to these. “Breadboard” is also a synonym for “prototype”. Because the solderless breadboard does not require soldering, it is reusable. This makes it easy to use for creating temporary prototypes and experimenting with circuit design. For this reason, solderless breadboards are also extremely popular with students and in technological education. Older breadboard types did not have this property. A stripboard (veroboard) and similar prototyping printed circuit boards, which are used to build semipermanent soldered prototypes or one-offs, cannot easily be reused. A variety of electronic systems may be prototyped by using breadboards, from small analog and digital circuits to complete central processing units (CPUs).
A modern solderless breadboard consists of a perforated block of plastic with numerous tin plated phosphor bronze or nickel silver alloy spring clips under the perforations. The clips are often called tie points or contact points. The number of tie points is often given in the specification of the breadboard. The spacing between the clips (lead pitch) is typically 0.1 in (2.54 mm). Integrated circuits (ICs) in dual in-line packages (DIPs) can be inserted to straddle the centerline of the block. Interconnecting wires and the leads of discrete components (such as capacitors, resistors, and inductors) can be inserted into the remaining free holes to complete the circuit. Where ICs are not used, discrete components and connecting wires may use any of the holes.
Jump wires (also called jumper wires) for solderless breadboarding can be obtained in ready-to-use jump wire sets or can be manually manufactured. The latter can become tedious work for larger circuits. Ready to- use jump wires come in different qualities, some even with tiny plugs attached to the wire ends. Jump wire material for ready-made or homemade wires should usually be 22 AWG (0.33 mm2) solid copper, tin-plated wire – assuming no tiny plugs are to be attached to the wire ends. The wire ends should be stripped 3?16 to 5?16 in (4.8 to 7.9 mm). Shorter stripped wires might result in bad contact with the board’s spring clips (insulation being caught in the springs). Longer stripped wires increase the likelihood of short-circuits on the board. Needle-nose pliers and tweezers are helpful when inserting or removing wires, particularly on crowded boards.
1. Jimoh I.A (2005), A new Approach to Municipal Waste Management in Nigeria, International Conference on Energy, Environment and Disasters- INCEED, Charlotte N.C, USA.- July 24-30.
2. http://sunnewsonline.com/nigeria-generates-24m-tonnes-of-waste-annually/3. Patil et al., International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering 7(4), April- 2017, pp. 407-410
3. “Arduino – Introduction”. arduino.cc.4. “Programming Arduino Getting Started with Sketches”. McGraw-Hill. Nov 8, 2011.
Retrieved 2013-03-28.5. Anton A. Huurdeman, The Worldwide History of Telecommunications, John Wiley & Sons, 31 July 2003, page 529
6. “GSM Global system for Mobile Communications”. 4G Americas. Retrieved 2014-03-22.7. Khan Shauzab, Aliasgar Lightwala, Naik Nadeem and Khan Shanawaz , Smart waste Management system using IoT. Anjuman I Islam Kalsekar technical campus, April 2017
8. B.M Rakib Hasan, A.M.M. Golam Yeazdani, Labib Md Istiaque, Rafee Mizan Khan Chowdhury, Smart Waste Management System Using Iot. Brac University, August 2017.
9. Okafor,Chukwuemeka Ikechukwu, Problems And Prospects Of Waste Management In Enugu State. A Case Study Of Enugu State Waste Management Authority (ESWAMA). University of Nigeria, Nsuka, April 2011
For the sake of clarity, we have organized this chapter in three sections. Section 2.1 contains a review of works on the concept of waste, the environmental and economical impact of improperly managed waste. Section 2.2 gives a review of works on the concept of waste management practices and the historical background of waste management in Nigeria. Section 2.3 reviews works on the internet of things concept and section 2.4 delves into the environmental impact of solid waste management.
The Concept of Waste:
In a publication by Akinwale (2005), Nigel Bell defines wastes as rubbish or materials that are not needed and are economically unusable without further processing. Here, Nigel’s emphasis is that to ascertain something as a waste, it has to be economically unusable. However, Nigel’s position can be questioned because recent practices have shown that what one party considers as unneeded materials, and of course economically unusable, may be of utmost need and of economic importance to another party. For example, after drinking the liquid contents of a bottle of champagne, the empty bottle is considered as a waste by the person who drank the liquid content and perhaps is thrown away. But, another person may pick it up from the point of disposal and either reuse or recycle the empty bottle for containing another liquid substance or some other item of economic importance. The bone of contention here is that it is not clear to say at what point an item constitutes a waste.
Defra in Ogwueleka (2009) succinctly posits that there is no definitive list of what is and is not waste. It goes further to state that whether or not a substance is discarded as waste- and when discarded materials ceases to be waste- are matters that must be determined by the facts of the case and the interpretation of the law. Defra is of the opinion that whether or not a substance is discarded as waste, rests on one hand, with the producer or holder of such substance to decide whether it is being discarded as waste and, on the other hand, with regulations or laws stipulating it as such. Contributing to the subject matter, the Basel convention cast its vote to the school of thought that believes that wastes are “substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of national law”. While the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) stated that “Wastes are materials that are not prime products (that is, products produced for the market) for which the generator has no further use in terms of his/her own purposes of production, transformation or consumption, and of which he/she wants to dispose”.
Section 32 of the Lagos State Environmental Sanitation Edict has defined waste as any substance which constitutes a scrap material, an effluent or other unwanted surplus substance arising from the application of any process. It further states that waste is usually classified according to:
(a) Its source,
(b) Its harmful effect on humans and the environment, and
(c) The control which are appropriate to deal with it.
With regards to the source classification, it either comes out of the shop (market) or office (commercial waste) or, out of the factory ( industrial waste), or out of the home (household or domestic waste). (Okafor, April 2011).
Moreover, it is clearly understood that what could be regarded as a waste can as well be valuable to another person and trading opportunities may arise if the cost of transportation of such item does not exceed the worth as perceived by the intending owner. (Thomas H. Christensen, p.4)
In addition to the aforementioned factors, what actually becomes waste depends on which items are being purchased and consumed. Or in other words culture, climate, religious and ethnic background as well as economical abilities affect what becomes waste. Hence, waste quantities and composition vary widely, both geographically (regionally, locally) and over time. (Thomas H. Christensen, p.4)
To be brief, we shall adopt our conclusion from the consensus of the Waste Framework Directive of the European Union (75/442/EC) that “once a substance or object has become waste, it will remain waste until it has been fully recovered and no longer poses a potential threat to the environment or to human health”. Therefore, anything which is discarded or otherwise dealt with as if it were waste shall be presumed to be waste unless it is proved otherwise. Waste, as a concept, does not exist in abstraction but has impacts as well as costs on nature and man. The Wikipedia free Encyclopedia 2010 observes three different costs of waste. These costs include:
Waste can attract rodents and insects which cause gastrointestinal parasites, yellow fever, worms, the plague and other bad health conditions. Exposure to hazardous wastes, particularly when they are burned, can cause various other diseases including cancers. Waste can contaminate water, soil, and air which causes more problems for man, other species, and the ecosystem. Waste treatment and disposal produces significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, notably methane, which is contributing significantly to global climate change.
Waste management is a significant environmental justice issue. Many of the environmental burdens cited above are more often borne by marginalized groups, such as racial minorities, women, and residents of developing nations. NIMBY (not-in-my-back-yard) is a popular term used to describe the opposition of residents to a proposal for a new development close to them. However, the need for expansion and siting of waste treatment and disposal facilities is increasing worldwide. There is now a growing market in the trans-boundary movement of waste. A significant amount of waste is moved from developed to developing nations. (Okafor, 2011)
The economic costs of managing waste are high, and are often paid for by municipal governments. Money can often be saved with more efficiently designed collection routes, modifying vehicles, and with public education. Environmental policies such as pay as you throw can reduce the cost of management and reduce waste quantities. Waste recovery (that is, refuse, recycling, reuse) can curve economic costs because it avoids extracting raw materials and often cuts transportation costs. The location of waste treatment and disposal facilities often has an impact on property values due to noise, dust, pollution, unsightliness, and negative stigma. The informal waste sector consists mostly of waste pickers who scavenge for metals, glass, plastic, textiles, and other materials and then trade them for a profit. This sector can significantly alter or reduce waste in a particular system, but other negative economic effects come with the disease, poverty, exploitation, and abuse of its workers. We shall now take a look at some of the wastes types that are of interest to the study.
2.2 Types of waste
There are many types of waste but a few shall be mentioned here for the purpose of the study, these are:
1. Municipal wastes
2. Industrial wastes
3. Agricultural wastes
4. Construction and demolition waste
5. Commercial and institutional waste
And Hazardous wastes which can stem from any of the above sources. Therefore it will not be taken as a part of the classification of wastes by source, rather as a cross-cutting character for all these wastes (UNESCAP, 1993). Moreover, the amount of waste generated in either developed or developing countries depends on the population, degree of urbanization and industrialization, and intensity of agricultural activities in such nation. Sources of waste according to their types are described below in details:
2.2.1 Municipal Solid Waste
Municipal solid waste (MSW), also called urban solid waste, is a waste type that includes predominantly household waste (domestic waste) with sometimes the addition of commercial wastes collected by a municipality within a given area. They are in either solid or semisolid form and generally exclude industrial hazardous wastes.
According to World Bank statistic (1999) it was estimated that high income countries generate MSW more than low or middle income countries. For example High income countries (such as Australia, Japan, Hong Kong, China, Republic of Korea, and Singapore) produce between 1.1 and 5.0 kg/capita/ day; middle-income countries (such as Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand) generate between 0.52 and 1.0 kg/capita/day, whilst low-income countries (such as Bangladesh, India, Viet Nam and Myanmar) have generation rates of between 0.45 and 0.89 kg/capita/day.
The figure 1 below elaborate more on MSW generation by the high, middle and low-income countries of the region.
Figure 1: Municipal Solid Waste Generation in Different Groups of Countries in the Region adopted from (World Bank 1999)
In addition, Asian and Pacific Regions are said to be currently producing about 1.5 million tons of MSW each day and these are expected to be double by 2025 (World Bank 1999). Similarly in Africa, Thousands of tons are generated on daily bases which are approximately 0.5 kilograms per person per day and in some cases reaching as high as 0.8 kilograms per person per day. While this may seem modest compared to the1–2 kg per person per day generated in developed countries, most waste in Africa is not collected by municipal collection systems because of poor management, fiscal irresponsibility, equipment failure, or inadequate waste management budgets (EGSSAA 2009). Sources of Municipal solid waste are elaborated in Table 1. Table1: General sources of municipal wastes(adapted from peavy, Rowey, and Tchobanoglous, 1985)
2.2.2 Industrial Solid Waste
Industrial solid wastes are residues being generated by human activities which could be described as the activities carried out in the industry. These unwanted residues may occur as relatively pure substances or as complex mixtures of vary-ing composition and in varying physiochemical states which significant proportion of it are regarded as hazardous or potentially toxic, thus requiring special handling, treatment and disposal (UNESCAP 1993).
The major sources of industrial solid wastes are the thermal power plants produc-ing coal ash, the integrated Iron and Steel mills producing blast furnace slag and steel melting slag, non-ferrous industries like aluminum, zinc and copper produc-ing red mud and tailings, sugar industries generating press mud, pulp and paper industries producing lime and fertilizer and allied industries producing gypsum (The Ministry of Urban Development Government of India, ref. 20 May 2012).
2.2.3 Agricultural waste
Agricultural wastes are residues produced from different agricultural activities. For example, horticultural and forestry wastes, comprise crop residues, animal manure, diseased carcasses, unwanted agrochemicals and ’empty’ containers (UNESCAP, 1993). The composition and amount of agricultural wastes in a particular country depends on the agricultural system being practiced and similarly, the continued increase in productivity will significantly lead to a proportional increase in Agricultural waste.
2.2.4 Construction and Demolition Waste
C&D wastes is the type of waste generated when there is an activity such as building and demolition of roads, bridges, and fly over, subway, remodeling or remover of construction and to name of few. It comprises of inert and non-biodegradable material such as concrete, plaster, metal, wood, plastics and so on (The Ministry of Urban Development Government of India, ref. 20 May 2012).
In the past, C&D waste has not been given serious attention as a waste that has value rather than using it for Landfill .However in the recent years more concentration has been placed and information were discovered that many material in C&D wastes are contaminated either as part of their original design or through their use and therefore should be managed accordingly. Moreover, it has been noted that a large proportion of C&D waste (about 90 %) can be easily recycled and thus can conserve landfill capacity. (Thomas and Lizzi 2011, p.104).2.2.5 Commercial and Institutional Waste
Commercial and institutional waste is generated from anything from paper and packaging of obsolete equipment in different sectors like, retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport.(Thomas H. Christensen p.112). Commercial and institutional waste generated a significant portion of municipal waste (23%), even in small region and environs which are usually collected by private sectors and municipalities have been slower to target this waste stream for recovery. Nowadays many cities and regions have realized the economic importance of commercial and industrial waste recycling system; therefore they are actively participating in the practice.
2.2.5 Hazardous waste
Hazardous wastes are unwanted material that are extremely dangerous and harmful to human health, animal, plants or the environment and it require critical control system by necessary body.
Hazardous wastes can be liquids, solids, or contained gases. They can be the by-products of manufacturing processes, discarded used materials, or discarded un-used commercial products, such as cleaning fluids (solvents) or pesticides. In regulatory terms, a hazardous waste is a waste that exhibits one of the four characteristics of a hazardous waste – ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. However, material can be hazardous even though it is not labeled as harzardous or have the characteristic of being hazardous (Oluwaleye, 2012). Hazardous wastes may pollute soil, air, surface water, or underground water. Pollution of soil may affect people who live on it, plants that put roots into it, and animals that move over it. Toxic substances that do not break down or bind tightly to the soil may be taken up by growing plants; the toxic substances may later appear in animals that eat crops grown there and possibly in people who do so. Air may become contaminated by direct emission of hazardous wastes. The air above hazardous waste may become dangerously contaminated by escaping gas, as can occur in houses built on mine tailings or old dump sites. River and lake pollution, if it is toxic enough, may kill animal and plant life immediately, or it may injure slowly. For example, fluoride concentrates in teeth and bone, and too much fluoride in water may cause dental and bone problems. Compounds such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), PCBs, and dioxins are more soluble in fats than in water and therefore tend to build up in the fats within plants and animals. These substances may be present in very low concentrations in water but accumulate to higher concentrations within algae and insects, and build up to even higher levels in fish. Birds or people that feed on these fish are then exposed to very high levels of hazardous substance. In birds, these substances can interfere with egg production and bone formation. Even pollution that is not toxic can kill. Phosphates and nitrates, usually harmless, can fertilize the algae that grow in lakes or rivers. When algae grow, in the presence of sunlight, they produce oxygen. But
if algae grow too much or too fast, they consume great amounts of oxygen, both when the sun is not shining and when the algae die and begin to decay. Lack of oxygen eventually suffocates other life; some living things may be poisoned by toxins contained in the algae. This process of algal overgrowth, called eutrophication, can kill life in lakes and rivers. In some cases, particular algae can also poison the drinking water of people and livestock. Irrespective of the category or type of wastes involved, the need for an effective and efficient management of wastes in the society becomes inevitable. According to Mowoe (1990:177) the management of waste is a matter of national and international concern. The volume of waste does not actually constitute the problem but the ability or inability of governments, individuals and waste disposal firms to keep up with the task of managing waste and the environment. There is no doubt that a dirty environment affects the standard of living, aesthetic sensibilities, health of the people and thus the quality of their lives. The corollary is that improper disposal or storage of this waste can constitute hazards to the society through the pollution of air, land and especially water as already noted above. What actually is waste management? Let’s take a look at what constitutes waste management and what does not. (Okafor, April 2011).
2.3 Concept Of Waste Management And Historical Background Of Waste Management In Nigeria
Waste management is the process of managing waste materials (normally those produced as a result of human activities). In order to define waste management, we need to include several different processes such as collection, transport, processing, recycling, disposing, and monitoring of waste. Along this line, the Wikipedia Web Encyclopedia 2010 defines waste management as the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal and monitoring of waste materials. According to Atsegbua L.A et al (2003:104), waste management does not just end at collection, transporting processing, recycling or disposal and monitoring of wastes materials but refers to the collection, keeping, treatment and disposal of wastes in such a way as to render them harmless to human and animal life, and the environment generally. In other words, the primary aim of managing wastes is for the safety of human, animal, and the environment. We could as well add here that any other aim that goes in contrary to the aims mentioned above does not constitutes waste management. Attah (2009) added that waste management could also be said to be the organized and systematic dumping and channeling of waste into landfills or through pathways to ensure that they are disposed of with attention to acceptable public health and environmental safeguard and that a proper waste management will result in the abatement or total elimination of pollution. Attah?s contribution raises some critical concerns with regards to the situation in Nigeria (generally). Perhaps one would be tempted to ask questions like;
Is dumping of wastes organized and systematic?
Is attention given to acceptable public health and environmental safeguard when it comes to waste disposal?
Have the LAWMA activities resulted in the abatement or total elimination of pollution in Lagos state?
Judging by sight, we can argue unequivocally that waste management in Lagos state does not conform to Attah’s definition of what waste management is. Whatever the perspective, the term waste management, in all its ramifications encompasses all steps taken in controlling the production, storage, collection, transportation, processing and disposal or utilization of wastes, in a sanitary manner (Taiwo: 2010).
2.3.1 Methods of Waste disposal
Practically, there are just two methods- those that are environmentally friendly e.g. sanitary or engineered landfill and composting, and those that are not, including incineration, stream dumping and open burning. Other existing methods include: petrification, bailing, land burial and pyrolysis, just to mention a few. Also of all the listed methods above only the sanitary landfill, stream dumping and land burial are permanent waste disposal systems while the others are just waste treatment i.e. meant to reduce the waste volume.
Disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying the waste and this remains a common practice in most countries. Landfills were often established in abandoned or unused quarries, mining voids or burrow pits. A properly designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials. Older, poorly designed or poorly managed landfills can create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter, attraction of vermin, and generation of liquid leachate. Another common byproduct of landfills is gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide), which is produced as organic waste breaks down anaerobically. This gas can create odour problems, kill surface vegetation, and is a greenhouse gas.
Design characteristics of a modern landfill include methods to contain leachate such as clay or plastic lining material. Deposited waste is normally compacted to increase its density and stability, and covered to prevent attracting vermin (such as mice or rats). Many landfills also have landfill gas extraction systems installed to extract the landfill gas. Gas is pumped out of the landfill using perforated pipes and flared off or burnt in a gas engine to generate electricity.
Incineration is a disposal method that involves combustion of waste material. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as “thermal treatment”. Incinerators convert waste materials into heat, gas, steam and ash. Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals and on a large scale by industry. It is used to dispose of solid, liquid and gaseous waste. It is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste). Incineration is a controversial method of waste disposal, due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants. Incineration is common in countries such as Japan where land is scarcer, as these facilities generally do not require as much area as landfills. Waste-to-energy (WTE) or energy-form- waste (EFW) is broad terms for facilities that burn waste in a furnace or boiler to generate heat, steam and/or electricity. Combustion in an incinerator is not always perfect and there have been concerns about micro-pollutants in gaseous emissions from incinerator stacks. Particular concern has focused on some very persistent organics such as dioxins, furans, PAHs, which may be created within the incinerator and afterwards in the incinerator plume which may have serious environmental consequences in the area immediately around the incinerator. On the other hand this method or the more benign anaerobic digestion produces heat that can be used as energy.
Plasma gasification method
Plasma is a highly ionized or electrically charged gas. An example in nature is lightning, capable of producing temperatures exceeding 12,6000F (6,9800C). A gasifier vessel utilizes proprietary plasma torches operating at +10,0000F (5,5400C) (the surface temperature of the sun) in order to create a gasification zone of up to 3,0000F (1,6500C) to convert solid or liquid wastes into a syngas. When municipal solid waste is subjected to this intense heat within the vessel, the waste’s molecular bonds break down into elemental components. The process results in elemental destruction of waste and hazardous materials. Plasma gasification offers states new opportunities for waste disposal, and more importantly for renewable power generation in an environmental sustainable manner (Alliance Federated Energy).
The popular meaning of “recycling” in most developed countries refers to the widespread collection and reuse of everyday waste materials such as empty beverage containers. These are collected and sorted into common types so that the raw materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products. Material for recycling may be collected separately from general waste using dedicated bins and collection vehicles, or sorted directly from mixed waste streams.
The most common consumer products recycled include aluminum beverage cans, steel food and aerosol cans, HDPE and PET bottles, glass bottles and jars, paperboard cartons, newspapers, magazines, and corrugated fiberboard boxes. PVC, LDPE, PP, and PS are also recyclable, although these are not commonly collected. These items are usually composed of a single type of material, making them relatively easy to recycle into new products. The recycling of complex products (such as computers and electronic equipment) is more difficult, due to the additional dismantling and separation required. Critics dispute the net economic and environmental benefits or recycling over its costs, and suggest that proponents of recycling often make matters worse and suffer from confirmation bias. Specifically, critics argue that the costs and energy used in collection and transportation detract from (and outweigh) the costs and energy saved in the production process; also that the jobs produced by the recycling industry can be a poor trade for the jobs lost in logging, mining, and other industries associated with virgin production; and that materials such as paper pulp can only be recycled a few times before material degradation prevents further recycling. Proponents of recycling dispute each of these claims, and the validity of arguments from both sides has led to enduring controversy.
2.3.2 Waste management in Nigeria
In Nigeria, especially in major urban centres, solid waste management is a critical problem. In fact, Nigerian Government has taken different steps in the past to combat the problem without success. You don?t need to look far before you see mountain of refuse in most of urban centres. Earlier on, the step taken was based on waste disposal on some designated landfills (that were not sanitary because they were not constructed with underlain (LDPE) to prevent leachate problem). This system i.e. one-fits-all does not work again because of increase in population and urbanization that effect the land use pattern. Then, when and where the municipal government cannot cope with waste collection and disposal successfully, people resolve into waste dumping into storm water, during the rainfall, open dumping and stream dumping. Based on observation, as Taiwo (2010) noted, waste management problem in most of Nigerian communities is multidimensional in nature. It is associated with lack of community participation in solid waste management. Most of policies concern this issue are made without considering the community people who are the waste generators. For instance, in a study conducted at Orita-Aperin communities in the year 2004, it was found out that attitudes and belief of community people affected their waste management practices. Furthermore, Taiwo stated that in Nigeria context, waste disposal is normally seen by the municipal government as a venture without any financial gain. That is the issues of environmental protection and healthful living are not very important to some health planners. In addition to this, the question of whose responsibility is to take care of waste generated in a community has not been clearly answered. Unless in some civilized areas, many people do not realized that they are liable to the disposal of wastes generated by them as they dump them by the road side for government workers to pick up!
Atsegbua (2003:104) observes that the problem associated with waste management in Nigeria does not appear to be a problem of absence of legislative framework for waste management but other factors have been identified as being responsible for penetrating the crises experienced in the management of waste in Nigeria. He highlighted these other factors as:
Lack of Adequate Funding and Excessive Population: waste management is by nature both capital and economic intensive. This requires huge capital outlay. Many state governments spend a good percentage of their funds on domestic waste management. For examples Lagos state Government spend between 2-25% of its funds on waste management. But what this amount could accomplish is dwarfed by the population it caters for. Lagos state, for instance, has a projected population of 12-18 million persons. It is estimated that the average individual in such mega cities as Lagos generates an average of 0.115kg of waste daily. It is that the funds available or at least earmarked for domestic waste management is grossly inadequate, to fund the public agencies and other private sector participants (PSP) involved in collection and disposal of domestic waste; to fund the procurement of equipment and materials required for effective domestic waste disposal.
Lack of Trained/Professional Waste Managers: There are just a few sanitation and environment Engineers in Nigeria. In fact most private sector operators in waste management are mainly party stalwarts; know little or nothing about waste management.
Lack of Effective Monitoring and Control: The Waste regime in the UK provides a quintessence of a system that makes for effective monitoring of domestic waste prior to disposal and the steps to be taken on disposal. The regime distinguishes between controlled and special waste. Under section 30 of the EPA, 1990, waste authorities in charge of waste administration have three basic functions: regulation, collection and disposal. Waste disposal authorities are to award waste disposal contracts through competitive tendering and are to make contracts with waste disposal contractors who may be private sector companies or companies set up by the local authority which must be at arm?s length from the waste authority. The waste regulation authority is responsible for issuing a waste management license. Under the regime, controlled waste may not be deposited, treated, kept or disposed of without a license. The licensing method issued as a means of controlling waste. Section 33(1)(a) of the EPA provides that it is an offence of “treat, keep or dispose of controlled waste in a manner likely to cause pollution of the environment or harm to human health. Pollution of the environment is defined in section 29 to mean the release or escape of the waste into any medium so as to cause harm to man or any other living organisms supported by the health of living organisms or other interference with the ecological systems of which they form part and in the case of man includes offence to any of his sense or harm to his property”. Thus the offensive smell of a waste tip would be covered, as presumably would its unattractive appearance. The offence can be committed whether or not the offender has a license. So the offence focuses on environmental protection, not with enforcing the licensing regime. The penalties are quite prohibitive. Again the duty of care principle under the EPA, designed to satisfy the European ideology on the environment that the polluter pays is an important form of liability on producers of domestic waste. The producer is responsible for the proper disposal of the waste. This means that the producer must ensure it is transferred to a responsible carrier. The producer cannot escape liability simply by passing the waste onto anyone else who could include the fly-tipper. This unbroken chain of waste transmission ensures that indiscriminate dumping and disposal is eliminated. The waste management regime in Nigeria is far from what is described above, so that the house-holder-producer of domestic waste is not deterred by any form of sanctions, because mostly, waste management agencies or contractors hardly exist in many places in Nigeria nor is monitoring and monitoring authorities effective.
Peculiarity of the Nigerians’ Attitude: The “government-does-everything” philosophy of many Nigerians contributes to the domestic waste management problems in Nigeria. A careless attitude permeates the thinking especially, those living in cities and towns. Self-help methods of domestic waste disposal are available and could be explored by individuals and institutions. Domestic incineration, landfill system is practicable, but most Nigerians would take to the easy way of depositing waste along the highway and corners of street for “government” to pick up. Some have founded this attitude on illiteracy but this would be a fallacy. Traditionally, as is still apparent in some of our villages, where a good number of individuals are still illiterate, residents are very conscious of the importance of having a clean environment and this is evidenced by the sanitation arrangements in force in these societies.
2.4Background of IOT
The Internet of Things (IOT) has not been around for very long. However, there have been visions of machines communicating with one another since the early 1800s. Machines have been providing direct communications since the telegraph ( the first landline ) was developed in the 1830s and 1840s. Described as “wireless telegraphy ,” the first radio voice transmission took place on June 3, 1900, providing another necessary component for developing the Internet of Things. The development of computers began in 1950s.
Internet of Things are therefore, sensors and actuators embedded in physical objects which are then linked through wired and wireless networks, often using the same Internet Protocol (IP) that connects the internet.
When thinking of the IOT device, think of a nearly endless supply of opportunities to interconnect our devices and equipments.
2.5Environmental Impact of Waste Management
Waste disposal is key especially when implemented the right way. Garbages, when not properly disposed can have adverse effects on the environment
1. Chemicals contaminating soil: When waste end up at the landfill, chemicals in the trash can leech out in the soil, contaminating it. This could destroy plants as well as weaken animals and humans who come in contact with such environment.
2. Air Pollution: Garbage can create air pollution due to gasses and chemicals being released from such waste. Let’s not forget, most of what we make us of these days are made with chemicals. The chemicals don’t just disappear when they are thrown in the trash can. They will continue to exist and cause environment havoc for a long time.
Adebola Olugbenga O. “The roles of the informal private sector in Integrated Solid Waste Management in the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)in Lagos, Nigeria.
California Department of Toxic Substances Control. (2010). California department of toxic substances control. Retrieved May 28, 2012 from http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/HazardousWaste/upload/HWMP_DefiningHW11.pdf
Charles, J. B., Best-Practices Benchmarking. Retrieved July 17, 2012 from http://www.qualitydigest.com/feb/bench.html
Finland’s environmental administration, Retrieved September 20, 2012 from http://www.environment.fi/default.asp?contentid=198116;lan=en
Lagos State Ministry of Information, Lagos State Ministry of Information. Retrieved September 02, 2012 from http://www.lagosstate.gov.ng/news2.php?k=1983
Lagos State Waste Management Authority.(2009), Lagos State Waste Management Authority. Retrieved August 29, 2012 from http://www.lawma.gov.ng/DataBank/INVESTORS%20GUIDE%20ON%20RECYCLING%20AND%20RESOURCE%20RECOVERY.pdf
National Reports Finland WASTE.pdf. Retrieved NOVEMBER 20, 2012 from http://www.un.org/esa/dsd/dsd_aofw_ni/ni_pdfs/NationalReports/finland/WASTE.pdf
OECD Environmental Performance review FINLAD 2009. Retrieved NOVEMBER 20, 2012 from http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/oecd-environmental-performance-reviews-finland-2009_9789264055582-en
The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
Thomas H. Christensen Technical University of Denmark, Denmark Lizzi Andersen COWI, Denmark. Solid Waste Technology and Management. Hoboken, NJ, USA
United Nations 1995, World Bank 1995 and 1998, UNEP/SPREP 1997
UNDP (1998) Human Development Report 1998. Oxford University Press, for the United Nations Development Programme. 108
Aigbokhavbo, V.O (2000). Waste Management in Nigeria; A Comparative Analysis in Atsegbua L.A(ed) Selected Essay in Petroleum and Environmental Laws. Benin-City: New Era.
Atsegbua, L.A, et al (2003), Environmental Law in Nigeria, Theory and Practice. Lagos: Ababa Publishers.
Agunwamba, J.C.(1998), “Solid Waste Management in Nigeria: Problems and Issues”. Environmental Management Vol. 22 No. 6 pp 849-856.
Ogwueleka, T. C. (2009), “Municipal Solid Waste Characteristics and Management in Nigeria”. Iran. Journal. Environ. Health. Sci. Eng., Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 173-180.
ULOMA, J. (2006), “Household Management of Polythene Wastes in Enugu Urban”. Journal of Environmental Research ; Policies Vol. 1 No 1, pp 34-36
FEPA (Federal Environmental Protection Agency) (2004) National Guidelines and Standards for Industrial Effluents, Gaseous Emissions and Hazardous Waste Management in Nigeria: Interim Effluent Limitation Guidelines in Nigeria for all Categories or Industries. FEPA (Nigeria) Official Gazette, Nigeria, (No. 58)..
Official Journal of the Council of the European Communities on Waste, (2000) No L 226/3
Michael Attah (2009) , Problems of Domestic Waste Management in Nigeria: Any
Repressors? Lecturer, Department of Private and Property Law, Faculty of Law, University of Benin, Benin City.