Amberton University, Garland, HRT6575.E1
Professor Dr. Sanchez, DiAnnSeptember 16, 2018
What is Kotter’s 8 stage process?
The evolution of organizational development from changing corporations, changing government agencies, and changing higher education institutions and non-profit organizations have served as examples of the critical nature of the organization’s external environment, and their dependence on it for survival. These organizations have also illustrated how all kinds of organizations must deal with change rapidly in the organizations themselves. The primary purpose is to have a greater understanding of the need for organizations change across all major sectors with the rate of change being faster the demands on organizations to adapt and change themselves have become greater. Our need is not only to understand organizations more thoroughly but also the greater need is to change them. Studies show that Kotter’s process is the most widely used models by management. Managing the change to recreate concurrent instances of Kotter’s process throughout has locally relatively to participants. The eight-stage process is “…as a vision for the change process” (Mento et al. 2002, p. 45) The change is in response to knowledge management program focusing on interpersonal aspects of retaining knowledge retention of an aging workforce. The change is necessary to engage at many levels of the organization to implement organizational change.
Kotter’s Eight-Stage Process of creating a major change can be summarized as follows:
Establish a sense of urgency
Creating the guiding coalition
Develop a vision and strategy
Communicating the change vision
Empowering broad-based change
Generating short-term wins
Consolidating gains and producing more change
Anchoring new approaches in the culture
Conduct an Article Review on Kotter’s Process. How can an organization benefit from Kotters’ Process?
The complexity of the required action to managing the change team in how the use of this process has been put into practice in literature from the article by Pollack’s titled, “Using Kotter’s Eight-Stage Process to Manage an Organizational Change Program: Presentation and Practice.” The use of Kotter’s eight-step process can be of a benefit to other change managers seeking to apply it.
Stage:1 Establishing a Sense of Urgency
The organization can raise awareness about an important issue the company is looking to do something about. In this article, the aging workforce is typically represented as a threat, but risks can also be considered an opportunity.
Urgency is establishing the awareness of the need to change and is critical to gaining the needed cooperation. High complacency rates mean transformations go now where because no one is interested in working on the change. With urgency low its difficult to put a team to credibility guide the effort. Complacency is identified to be the norm established in organizations.
A change could take considerable effort and time to put up with the inconveniences of change from issues that could arise in response that could negatively impact the efforts to change. There is an opportunity for a competitive advantage by raising awareness that there is an important issue for the company to urgently respond to effectively.
Step 2: Creating the Guiding Coalition
The involvement of the Guiding Coalition is identified as essential by Kotter to form a group that will have enough power to lead the change. There needs to be considerable effort to bond the senior team with the personnel invited to coach the group. Senior personnel must meet the need for a strong guiding coalition. Having management with enough power to lead the change and guide knowledge management at multiple levels championed by the reports of the CEO and on-going strategic direction for the program. The General Management group is to guide the projects, identify problematic factors and responsible for successful implementation of changes in organizations is vital. This is particularly complex so retaining senior personnel is particularly vital. It was made clear at the technical level and coaching involved with the senior personnel that the success of the program depends on their involvement in the program. The CEO would have a guiding influence beyond the limits of the project.
Step 3: Develop a Vision and Strategy
Developing a vision and strategy for projects in an organization is common because of the common need to change. One key strength of the organization is the talented senior technical personnel. Upon retirement, these employees take unique skills, knowledge, experience, and relationships with them as they walk out the door. Transferring knowledge from generation to generation of professional is considered vital to maintaining performance. Focusing on developing a vision and strategy to improve the organization could be launching of an issue that could include a variety of projects such as a mentoring project, developing communities, role definition, introduction into a graduate program, development of seminars focused on knowledge sharing and a retirement preparation project focusing on retention and workload issues.
Step 4: Communicating the Change Vision
More communication about the strategy of change is required than occurs. Usually, the senior team is appointed to talk about the change. Giving them the opportunity to create presentations instead of just reading information allows them to be excited about talking through the change and assume responsibility for the communication. Presentations show the importance that a change should have. Developing relationships inside the organization’s departments also prove to be more significant than posting on the internet through nurturing positive relationships which helps keep news about the program at the top of the list longer for greater prominence.
Step 5: Empowering Broad-Based Change
The same as having levels empower the organization removing broad-based change is important to remove obstacles or structures that undermine the vision and encourage innovative ideas. Communication helps remove structural barriers. The groups oversee central control of business plan to move the interests in place. Having the program involved in all business plans ensures that priorities are featured prominently in the documentation. Relationships help with communication and provide a feature prominently. Encouraged coaches can help participants with the intention of empowering them to take independent action. When an individual has abilities that suit their interest or need the training to be further developed these actions were revealed when actively supported.
Step 6: Generating Short-term Wins
Short term wins help demonstrate the momentum related to the way progress is supposed to go. By seeking out examples to illustrate the successes of the program through positive change the story helps facilitate and encourage organizational change. People feel they don’t make progress because it was hard, and the change that occurred was intangible and easy to forget. Finding ways to communicate short-term wins helps sooth flagging spirits.
Stages 7 and 8: Consolidating Gains and Producing More Change, and Anchoring New Approaches in the Culture?
The team has been fast-tracked on their path to success. Due to the access to senior management and perception that they were on development participants in some projects were perceived as members of “exclusive club.” The involvement of all possible communication and increased visibility of the program created the consequences of having to deal with the team’s success. The effort to keep the program true to the vision during this stage of growth.
Some parties suggest that the success should change focus to an interest that would not be of tacit and easily codified. Or telling others what to do giving them rules may create mental receptors upon which to hang experience. The tacit dimensions of deep smarts must be re-created and take hold. New messages about the organizational interest of the change were sought to maintain organizational interest in change. As Kotter states, “Whenever you let up before the job is done, critical momentum can be lost, and regression may follow. Until changed practices attain a new equilibrium and have been driven into the culture, they can be very fragile” (Kotter 1996, P. 133) It will likely be years before the definitive statement can be made about how well the change is embodied in culture.
Explain a new change your organization is conducting and how this process could help your company? (3-page minimum)
Skokie Pep Boys Uber/Hertz Implementation Plan
Currently, in the organization that I work for, there is considerable momentum in managing the organization change. There are many stakeholder groups that are necessary for managing the change. Each team’s leadership needs to be separately engaged by the change team, first developing a sense of urgency, forming a group to lead the change, and defining what the change would mean to them. The leadership within the organization was not enough to define what the change would mean to them, so they had to have other stakeholders with urgency locally. The process of change comprised of multiple processes with overlapping instances moving at their own speed. Kotter’s process has provided some validity to greater opportunity to learn from others in changing their organizations.
Unanticipated consequences occur as leaders say, “For every step forward we take, we seem to fall back two steps; something always needs fixing to get us back on track.” CITATION Bur17 l 1033 (Burke, 2017) Planning the organization change is revolutionary its mostly a series of events that will be messy at implementation. The linear process of step one, step two usually isn’t successful because realistically things don’t always proceed as planned. The process is creative and evolutionary.
Planning the implementation to support it we assumed others wouldn’t support it, and resisted change and some believed would advocate the change resisted the change. We faced the need to regroup and work hard on those now resisting the change whom we assumed would be supportive of it at the same time advocating those we thought were going to resist. This was a need for a loopback, in other words, it’s not very large to fix this problem. The process itself in the thick of things may feel chaotic with people wondering who’s in charge here? At the same time, the end state is what pulls or establishes a pattern.
We launched a new way to change effort with some new initiative for a different way of evaluation performance from, say results only as the index of performance to a “balanced scorecard.” The goals for managers to lead change are found on the scorecard and we are willing to stay the course, over time the goals will be achieved through the organizational milestones. We are launching the new initiative as a way of evaluating performance to a “balanced scorecard.” Let us be clear: We must plan to change yet understand things never quite turn out as we planned.
The external environment has more factors to name a few the capital organization are informal and messy. They are not highly organized like corporations and although not in concert with these people they decide your business and your vision are currently worth working for. Before we go to the concept of power to determine the most critical point of all is fundamental. In the end, it’s the consumer out there in the external environment who determines the fate of any business. So it’s the consumer that capital market folks pay attention. Will a customer buy this stuff, pay for these services, and keep going for the foreseeable future.
However, I digress, the scorecard would be best managed by drilling down the current goals for NPS 70%, Snap Sheet 90%, UTE 95%, OOS 3%, Staff Helpfulness 67%, Vehicle Cleanliness 56%, and On Rent 252. In the huddle, we can use the scorecard to in the “age of discontinuity” to see the fate of our business in the foreseeable future.
Every day the Inventory will be checked on the lot, we huddle with Pep Boys, check cars in service, close aging contracts, total snap sheet usage, fleet control to the right bucket, update VAW, check vehicle solutions for missing documents, closing/sheet and closing counts, and cut PO’s. This is a part of our task list that we should discuss in the daily huddle. Since we need to improve our vehicle cleanliness and the helpfulness of staff we will train our employees in the correct procedures and document if they pass/fail in each category. This will provide a learning opportunity for the employee to be trained in areas they are not passing. The training will be completed on an individual basis to monitor each employees progress and update their company profile. The goal is that when we need new Branch Managers we will be able to say that we have employees who are able to fill the role.
We can use Kotter’s eight-stage process in terms of short-term wins to engage the group and defining the change vision meant for them. With respect to whether the change should be managed, we would contribute to the organization to re-create the tacit dimensions and deep smarts. Having the change management process evaluated by practitioners in a unique context is appropriate for senior managers who drive the change decisions through interventions focused on change in the organization’s culture. Our groups are moving in parallel working together in the status of changes at once. Depending on where the group has engaged the flexibility of the stakeholder group can be changed by senior management engaging at that time to make changes locally.
Posting – What is Organizational Change? How does Organizational Change Impact Your Company? POST THE RESPONSE IN THE DISCUSSION FORUM AND RESPOND TO TWO CLASSMATES (DISCUSSION AND PARTICIPATION – 2.5 pts.)
1. Compare and contrast evolutionary and revolutionary change. Give at least one example of each type of change in an organization.
The revolutionary change process is the creative process of implementation. Organizations could find an example of revolutionary change when an issue is raised to a change leader who determines that the unforeseen forays by a significant competitor and required the organization to implement change or risk mitigation measures to remain competitive with the external environment. As the planning is usually linear the step 1, then step 2 and 3, so on the implementation is messy. It will be confusing, and things get in the way, we get the process wrong, and we must start over. The creative process is an evolutionary process very realistically. People don’t get to do things their way always, things don’t proceed as planned, not according to plan.
Provided the goals are clear and the leaders are willing to stay the course, over time, the process may end up being somewhat linear, or a pattern may emerge. In the end, there are organizational milestones the end is reached is no end state which pulls or establishes a pattern. In the implementation, process linearity is not what anyone experiences in the thick of things they may feel chaotic.
Evolutionary change versus revolution is a gradual continuous process of change in contrast to sudden events that might precipitate massive turmoil, resistance, and planned change that could lead to eventual change. One example of evolutionary change is when the employee huddle reveals that there are deficient metricizes that need to be improved. It’s particularly difficult to fix something when there’s nothing to fix. The metricizes need to be researched for feedback reporting a sense of organizational problems. Organizational change is difficult because it’s often the paradox that organizational change is at the peak of success that it’s usually the best time for a significant change.
Explain what content and process refer to in the context of organizational change?
Determining what makes a stand and declaring what the new world will look like when the change addresses the identity and purpose of how leadership requires organizational members to participate. The content is one thing in the organization and the process is another. Content provides the ‘what’ for the vision and overall direction of the charge, and the process, the how concerns implementation and adoption. The overlap in distinctions will be the subject matter in Chapter 8. Organizational models are frameworks that help integrate the many parts of an organization into more manageable portions of organizational change to help integrate content and process change which will be covered in Chapter 9.
What significant contributions did the Hawthorne studies make to the understanding of organization change?
The Hawthorn Studies were illumination studies in Chicago. The research had a change itself and the illumination was quite different. The studies were a series of experiments steeped in economics and engineering. It turns out that the sociology and psychology were significant contributors to why employees were more productive. The conclusion is that the working conditions and productivity have no cause and effect relationship. Factors contributing to the increase in productivity were the way workers were treated, smaller groups, no boss, and more freedom on the job.
According to Burke (2017),
“The Hawthorne studies are significant as a precursor to our understanding of organization change for the following reasons:
They demonstrated the important influence of psychological or human factors on worker productivity and morale.
They signaled the criticality of certain variables for worker satisfaction: autonomy on the job (workers being able to set their own work pace), the relative lack of a need for close supervision of people who know their jobs, receiving feedback on the direct relationship between performance and reward, and having choices and some influence over change.
They ushered in more humanistic treatment of workers on the job.
They provided evidence for later theory, such as Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene notion. The hygiene portion of Herzberg’s theory is that there is no direct cause–effect relationship between working conditions and productivity (Herzberg, Mausner, ; Snyderman, 1959).
They provided the stimulus and data for much of what we now know about group dynamics, especially in a work context. The bank-wiring group was analyzed thoroughly by Homans, and this study, plus others in the series, resulted in his theory about work groups, his leading-edge thinking about group norms, and his now classic book The Human Group (Homans, 1950).”
Choices and worker satisfaction were important to worker attitude for motivation and productivity. This information increased productivity in group dynamics. The later theory of Hertzberg is a theory which prior studies that I’ve researched show that employee motivation could be improved to decrease turnover and increase job retention among workers. The major outcome of the studies is training supervisors how to handle employee complaints to find the underlying problem that exists on the job, or at home, or in the persons past.
2. Describe the action research (OD) approach to organization change
OD is a diagnosis through research that serves as a primary contributing body to the data collection of the organization. Getting the feedback from problems reported gives a sense of organizations problems. Discussion of what the data collected means and planning steps for action on this research to take the steps that need to be taken are a way for the organization to make an intervention in the way it operates. Once a problem is reported its usually important to make sure that the system making changes in decisions that affect organizational members and that all the affected members are involved in the changes from decisions that will affect them. Interventions are frequently focused on change in the organizations’ culture.
Burke, W. W. (2017). Organization Change Theory & Practice 5th Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Kotter J (1996) Leading change. Harvard Business School Press, Boston
BIBLIOGRAPHY Mento A, Jones R, Dirndorfer W (2002) A change management process: grounded in both theory and practice. J Change Manag 3:45–59
Pollack, J., & Pollack, J. (2014). Using Kotter’s Eight Stage Process to Manage an Organizational Change Program: Presentation and Practice. Springer Science+Business Media, 51-66.