Abstract — Distributed Energy Resources

Abstract — Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) terms concerning this argument include smart grid, distribution system of the future, and etc. Functionally, a smart grid would be able to offer new talents such as self-healing, high dependability, energy management, and time period valuing. From a design view, a smart grid can expected incorporate new technologies like automation, communication, advanced metering, distributed generation, and distributed storage. This paper discussed the potential impact that problem concerning smart grid will have on the distribution system.

I. INTRODUCTION
The Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) is growing as is that the impact on electrical utility distribution networks. While DERs are increasing renewable energy with their gathering of advantages, there are unit several issues utilities would like challenge to assure eminent management of a various and distributed energy fusion. The guide covers the technical capabilities of distributed energy resources that are unit electric car, demand response, distributed generation and storage. Figure 1 is shown that the short of every resource and technologies with own benefit on generate power to consumer.

Figure 1. The different types of distributed energy resources
II. RESEARCH ON GOVERNMENTAL/ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT OR RESTRICTION
A. The investigation regarding distribution energy resource on smart grid is compatible with requirements of electric system grid operators and electric utility corporations whereas helping the loads and needs of electricity customers. The research is organized as shown below:
1. Advanced Sensing Modelling and Short Term management within the Distribution Grid
• FEXLAB Pilot test facility
• Multi objective smart inverter control with micro-sychrophasor data
• VirGIL (Virtual Grid Integration Lab)
• Contact: Emma Stewart, [email protected]
2. Microgrid Supervisory Control and Resource Coordination
• Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model
• Microgrid Design Tools
• Microgrid controller depliyment
• Contact: Michael Stadler, [email protected]

B. Distributed Energy Resources Impact to the Distribution System Reliability under Restrictions Load Transfer.
The integration of distribution systems that is the power intermittent sources are wind and solar can increase significantly the complexity of system operation. Therefore, a noteworthy procedure to properly determine the total of capacity that may be moved to different feeders is conferred, taken into consideration the presence of distributed generation. The results bring general understandings concerning the advantage of applying distributed generation to ease load transfer restrictions.
III. STUDY ON THE SETUP COST, OPERATING COST AND MAINTENANCE COST

Generally, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is determine reliable and affordable ways for utilities and grid operators to take advantage of the new ways electricity is produced, distributed, and used.
EPRI is taking on that addition research into the costs and advantage of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) to the systems that are:
1. The Integrated Grid: Realizing the Full Value of Central and Distributed Power Resources.
Purpose: To modify utility customers to own the same technology choices from their electrical suppliers as they’re in alternative areas of their lives.
2. The Integrated Grid; Benefit-Cost Framework
Purpose: Focuses on how the community can take advantage from all the individual customer choices.
More flexible typical fleet, based on the EPRI’s paper, could:
• Address variation with more competently managing turndown and start times
• Increase the flexibility and suitability of resources by reducing the inadequacy of probability of capacity and loss of load.
• Reduces the challenge of steady frequency and voltage just by having a lot of online generations.
Getting these benefit would require capital investment and operative price. Managing operative price is more straightforward. Receiving a lot of flexibility services from typical plants can increase component replacement and labour maintenance costs, costs for increased labour and training of operators, and increased policy compliance costs, and etc.

IV. STRENGTH AND WEAKNESSES OF DISTRIBUTED ENERGY IMPACT ON SMART GRID
It is estimated that billions of ringgit will be saved because of demand response that provide measurable, persistent savings and need no human involvement or behaviour modification. That changes dramatically reduced need to build more power plants and transmission lines.
A smart grid is expects, detects and responds to issues quickly reduces wide area blackouts to leadership close to zero. The Smart Grid success center is the ability to securely and simply accommodate a large kind of generation, from large centralized plants to little solar panels and everything in between. All issue in between seek advice from the growing roster of distributed energy resources that include:

• Distributed generation (DG) – litle, widely
dispersed plants, usually in close
proximity to energy loads

• Renewable energy.

• Energy storage

• Demand response – decreasing
demand rather than increasing supply in
response to peak loads

• Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)
When use smart grid, automatically will have positive impact on the surrounding as well as climate change. Additionally, electric car produces less carbon monoxide and harmful substances compared to regular car. Energy produces from smart grid can also be renewed like solar and wind. We are reducing our carbon footprint and claiming a global environmental claim.
The price of energy will increase. However, future cost increases will be much smarter after the smart grid. Smart grid technology, tools and techniques also will give customers with new options for managing our own electricity consumption and controlling our own utility bill. Smart grid will be more resistant to natural disasters and attack. It will move us toward energy independence from outside energy sources, that themselves is also targets for attack, outside of our protection and control.
However, the smart grid also has few challenges to create and maintain, for an example is new infrastructure to communicate in both directions. For the time being, the electricity prices continue to be low cost compared to create a full system of smart grid. The return of investment might take a few years.
To buy a new electric vehicle also may have problems. The system that generates power for the electric vehicle is not absolutely develop to wide area within the world. Next is security issues, it should have potentialities to have physical or cyber-attack since the smart grid development is still new in this country.

V. STATISTICAL INFORMATION ON IMPACT OF DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCES ON SMART GRID.
The electric grid has restricted generation capability, and runs with a collection quantity of headroom. Some days however are too taxing on the grid. Additionally to the conventional demand on the system, a heat wave has everyone turning up the AC. This demands a lot of electricity–potentially beyond the system’s capability, at that purpose brown-outs and rolling black-outs occur.

VI. STABILITY, OPERATIONAL ISSUES, RECENT ADVANCEMENT IN DISTRIBUTED ENERGY OF SMART GRID
Times have certainly changed. Today, the integrity of the grid is itself an issue of national security. At issue are not only attacks on the power system, for example physical attacks but also attacks through the power system, or cyber-attacks. 70% of energy and power companies experienced some kind of severe cyber-attack to computing or energy management systems.

Ironically, recent technological changes to the grid together with dependence on unprotected telecommunications networks may adding to the security problem. Additionally, the convenience of accessibility to open data sources available via the Internet may also be putting the infrastructure in risk.

A smarter grid makes security importance from the outset. A systems approach to electric power security will establish key weaknesses, assess the probability of threats and determine consequences of an attack. Flexibility are going to be built into each element of the system, and the overall system designed to discourage, detect, respond and recover from manmade disruptions as well as those from hurricanes and earthquakes. Planning for man made threats will consider multiple points of potential failure.

Feed-in Tariff (FiT) has been introduced in Malaysia by Sustainable Energy Development Authority Malaysia (SEDA) to buy electricity that generate from renewable energy. It is a dicent development by the government to encourage people to produce their own electricity.

VII. IMPACT TO SOCIETY, CULTURE, GLOBAL AND ENVIRONMENT

A smarter grid gets that approach by giving consumers the power to participate and choose. Two-way communication will produce a dialog between utilities and consumers enabling consumers to see what electricity they use, when they use it, and how abundant it price. For the first time, several will be able to manage their energy costs proactively, whether that means finance in intelligent, energy saving use devices or selling energy back to the utility for revenue or as a means of exercising environmental maintenance.

From the utility perspective, client participation will enable utilities to enlist client demand as another resource, off setting the necessity for extra power generation. With consumers involvement, utilities will be able to facilitate balance supply and demand and guarantee dependableness. A smarter grid enables residential customers to possess an equivalent type of opportunities during this regard as commercial and industrial customers.

Now more than ever, our nation’s economy depends on reliable energy. As noted, Smart Grid technologies will dramatically reduce total fuel consumption and there by potentially reduce fuel prices for all consumers. Additionally, a smarter grid creates new markets as private industry develops energy economical and intelligent appliances, smart meters, new sensing and communications capabilities and passenger vehicles.

More specifically, with advanced components and widespread communication supporting market operations and providing full visibility of information to any or all, a smarter grid can encourage new market participants, enabling a variety of new load management, distributed
generation, energy-storage and demand response choice and opportunities. These contributions are reinforcing the Smart Grid’s economic benefit by permitting demand to
act as a provide resource recently deferring some large capital investments in power.

Besides, by using Smart Grid, pollution from carbon monoxide and dioxide that produce from fuel consumption that generates electricity and generates vehicles can be reduce.

Obstacles to Further Development or Deployment of Smart grid.
Lack of Standardization
30 % of utility managers cited “lack of technology standards” as a significant obstacle to smart grid deployment. Uncertainty concerning interoperability and technology standards give the greatest risk to utilities, who do not want to buy components that will not work with new innovations down the road.
Regulatory Barriers
Many of the obstacles to a smart grid are regulatory issues. Electric power is historically the regulatory domain of states. The patchwork of regulatory structures and jurisdictions is simply loosely coordinated, and final authority on many choice can be unclear, as projects are subject to multiple levels of review. Local (municipal, county), state-level, and federal jurisdictions overlap, and conflicting decisions may end up in regulatory lead times of many years. Some regulatory decisions may be challenged in court, resulting in more potential delays at each level. This series of delays adds significantly to the value and regulative risk of pursuing a smart grid project.

As a conclusion, the Age of the Smart Grid is upon us. Huge amounts of capital are being and can be deployed over consective decade and beyond in upgrading the world’s power grid. Each the political and financial will appears to be behind Smart Grid deployment. Fortunes are going to be create in this arena, and our lives will all be changed for the better through the intelligent delivery of more efficient and cleaner energy. What is more, smart grid should be supported by a smart and secure communications network, power utilities will have the infrastructure, applications and services needed to deliver non-stop, high-quality power safely and with efficiently. In our future work we are going to concentrte the communication platform needs specification of smart grids, and also the reference design description and criticism.