-285115-102870000Perceptions of Students on the quality of service at the cafeteria in Mafikeng Campus

-285115-102870000Perceptions of Students on the quality of service at the cafeteria in Mafikeng Campus.

By
Aubrey Thabo Chauke
Student Number: 25313207
Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for
BCom Honours in Management with Business Management
Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences
North West University, Mafikeng campus
Supervisor
Mr. J.G Nimako
November 2018
Declaration.I, Aubrey Thabo Chauke hereby declare that the content of the research: Perception of students on the quality of service at the cafeteria in Mafikeng Campus is my own work and all the sources that I have used or quoted have been indicated and acknowledged by means of complete references.

………………………………..

Chauke A.T
November 2018DedicationI dedicate this dissertation my family for their assistance. Prayers, support, and encouragement.

Mr. James Chauke
The late Sergeant Hendrik Khumalo
Mrs. Mary Chauke
Miss Elizabeth Chauke
Miss Grace Chauke
Mr. Willy Chauke
AcknowledgmentI thank God for creating me, for the wisdom he blessed me with and the strength to be able to complete my dissertation in time.

A special thanks to my parents, James Chauke and Mrs. Mary Chauke for supporting me throughout the year and praying on my behalf, my siblings, Elizabeth Chauke, Grace Chauke and Willy Chauke for their unconditional support and for always calling me to ensure that I am coping academically.

To my supervisor, Mr. J.G Nimako for his constant support, guidance, motivation and developing as a student in Management and My senior, Mr. Olutade Olumide thanks for the support you gave me to conduct this study successfully.

To my pastors, Pastor Dineo Morare and Pastor Ndivhuo Nemalili thank you for the love and support you showed me throughout my academic period, may God bless you.

To my friends, Lebogang Moumake, Thebe Tuabeng, Jonas Ntjana, Kenanao Mothibi, Linda Kgwasi, Keitumetse Mathe, Aobakewe Setlhare, Max Madikwe, Ruggayah Bulla, and Granny Lobeha thank you for the love and support you have shown me.

Abstract
The purpose of this study was to proffer solutions to the problems that were encountered at the Mafikeng campus cafeteria as a result of the long customer turnaround time. The study was report by its nature. With results, measures that should be taken to improve the quality of service by reducing the long customer turnaround time will be available. The targeted population were the students who registered with North-West University Mafikeng campus for the 2018 academic period. A sample that comprised of 43 students was used and results were generalized and analyzed using Microsoft Office Excel 2013
Keywords
Service quality, Student Perception, student satisfaction.

List of Appendixes
TOC o “1-3” h z u
Appendix 1 Long Customer queues48
Appendix 2 Poor quality food49
Appendix 2(b) The dirtiness of the cafeteria50
Appendix 3 Sample size results51
List of Tables TOC o “1-3” h z u
Table 4.3.6 suitability of Infrastructure.28
Table 4.3.7 suitability of technology.28
Table 4.3.8 Method of purchase.29
Table 4.3.9 Customer turnaround time.29
Table 4.3.10 Service points30
Table 4.3.11 Satisfaction of quality of service.30
Table 4.3.12 Level of satisfaction.31
Table 4.3.13 Reason for being a regular customer.31
Table 4.3.14 Service delivery improvements.32
Table 4.3.15 Quality of service by employees.32
Table 4.3.16 Need for training.33
Table 4.3.17 Enough Employees.33
Table 4.3.18 Quality improvements34
Table 4.3.19 University regulation34
Table 4.3.20 Clarifying customer roles.35
Table 4.3.22 Delivery motorcycles.35
Table 4.3.23 Level of cleanliness of the cafeteria.36
Table 4.3.24 Use of suggestion boxes.36

TOC o “1-3” h z u
List of figuresFigure 4.3.1 Age24
Figure 4.3.2 Gender25
Figure 4.3.3 Level of study25
Figure 4.3.4 on campus or off campus resident.26
Figure 4.3.5 Using Bursary of cash.27

Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Declaration. PAGEREF _Toc527288190 h iiDedication PAGEREF _Toc527288191 h iiiAcknowledgement PAGEREF _Toc527288192 h ivAbstract PAGEREF _Toc527288193 h vList of Appendixes PAGEREF _Toc527288194 h viList of Tables PAGEREF _Toc527288195 h viiList of figures PAGEREF _Toc527288196 h viiiCHAPTER 1 PAGEREF _Toc527288197 h 11. Introduction PAGEREF _Toc527288198 h 11. 1 Background PAGEREF _Toc527288199 h 21.2 Problem Statement. PAGEREF _Toc527288200 h 41.3 Purpose of the study. PAGEREF _Toc527288201 h 41.4 Research Questions. PAGEREF _Toc527288202 h 41.4.1 Primary Research Question PAGEREF _Toc527288203 h 51.4.2 Secondary research questions PAGEREF _Toc527288204 h 51.5 Research Objectives of the study. PAGEREF _Toc527288205 h 51.6 Delimitations of the study PAGEREF _Toc527288206 h 51.7 Ethical Considerations. PAGEREF _Toc527288207 h 61.8 Significance of the study. PAGEREF _Toc527288208 h 61.9 Outline of Chapters in the Final report PAGEREF _Toc527288209 h 7Chapter 2 PAGEREF _Toc527288210 h 82. Introduction to literature review. PAGEREF _Toc527288211 h 82.1 The History of quality Management. PAGEREF _Toc527288212 h 82.2 The role of service quality in the cafeteria. PAGEREF _Toc527288213 h 82.3 Understanding the dimensions of Service Quality. PAGEREF _Toc527288214 h 92.4 Service quality. Student satisfaction and service quality gaps. PAGEREF _Toc527288215 h 112.5 Improving facility layout to improve the flow of production. PAGEREF _Toc527288216 h 132.6 Improving the hygiene knowledge of food staff to satisfy students PAGEREF _Toc527288217 h 132.7 Effects of Queues on student Purchases and Waiting time. PAGEREF _Toc527288218 h 142.8 Service quality and student satisfaction. PAGEREF _Toc527288219 h 15Conclusion. PAGEREF _Toc527288220 h 15CHAPTER 3 PAGEREF _Toc527288221 h 163. Methodology PAGEREF _Toc527288222 h 163.1 introduction PAGEREF _Toc527288223 h 163.2 Research Methodology. PAGEREF _Toc527288224 h 163.3 Research design PAGEREF _Toc527288225 h 163.3.1 Quantitative research Method PAGEREF _Toc527288226 h 173.4 Population. PAGEREF _Toc527288227 h 173.5 Sample selection PAGEREF _Toc527288228 h 183.5.1 Probability sampling method PAGEREF _Toc527288229 h 183.6 Data collection. PAGEREF _Toc527288230 h 193.6.1 Quantitative data collection method PAGEREF _Toc527288231 h 193.6.2 Development of the questionnaire. PAGEREF _Toc527288232 h 203.6.3 Administration of questionnaires PAGEREF _Toc527288233 h 203.7 Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc527288234 h 203.8 Ethical Considerations. PAGEREF _Toc527288235 h 213.8.1 Reliability. PAGEREF _Toc527288236 h 213.8.2 Validity. PAGEREF _Toc527288237 h 213.8.3 Acknowledgement of sources. PAGEREF _Toc527288238 h 213.8.4 Gaining Access. PAGEREF _Toc527288239 h 22Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc527288240 h 22Chapter four PAGEREF _Toc527288241 h 234. Data Analysis and presentation of results. PAGEREF _Toc527288242 h 234.1 Introduction. PAGEREF _Toc527288243 h 234.2 Interpretation of quantitative data. PAGEREF _Toc527288244 h 234.3 Presentation of the results. PAGEREF _Toc527288245 h 23Figure 4.3.5 Using Bursary of cash. PAGEREF _Toc527288246 h 27Section B: Interpretation of research questions on the questionnaire. PAGEREF _Toc527288247 h 28Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc527288248 h 37Chapter 5 PAGEREF _Toc527288249 h 385. Discussions and Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc527288250 h 385.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc527288251 h 385.2 Discussion of findings. PAGEREF _Toc527288252 h 385.3 Recommendations. PAGEREF _Toc527288253 h 40Conclusion. PAGEREF _Toc527288254 h 43References. PAGEREF _Toc527288255 h 44Appendix 1 Long Customer queues PAGEREF _Toc527288256 h 48Appendix 2 Poor quality food PAGEREF _Toc527288257 h 49Appendix 2(b) the dirtiness of the cafeteria PAGEREF _Toc527288258 h 50Appendix 3 Sample size results PAGEREF _Toc527288259 h 51Calculate Your Sample Size: PAGEREF _Toc527288260 h 51Informed Consent Letter PAGEREF _Toc527288261 h 52Questionnaire PAGEREF _Toc527288262 h 53
CHAPTER 11. IntroductionThe experiences of customers in their different service encounters determine how they think about the services offered and products that they buy. It is very important to understand how customers feel in order to be able to determine the level of the quality of service offered by the cafeteria. Understanding customer perception helps to be able to identify problems in the cafeteria and be able to come up with solutions that will benefit customers and the cafeteria. Customers no longer judge service quality based on quality of menu only but they now look other factors such as, prices commensurate to the quantity and quality of the menu; the layout of dining tables; the sitting arrangement, steward position; turnaround time; availability of modern technology of payments; respect for customers; feedback mechanism (complaints box);corporate social responsibility to the University community and consultation with stakeholders; for example, Student Campus Council executives.

According to Peppers and Roggers (cited by Farahmand and Tripathi 2013:22) highlights that customers, also known as clients, purchasers, and buyers, are organizations or parts thereof, either business-to-business (B2B) customers or end-user customers.
Customers provide the lifeblood of the organization as they provide the income that is needed to keep the company afloat. In return for the money that they pay, they expect quality products and decent services (Rossouw & Van Vuuren, 2013: 97). Customers are people or organizations that buy goods and services offered by the business. Business cannot operate without customers. Without customers having a need, a business cannot exist. Companies need to value prospective and loyal customers by listening to them and including them in decisions that are affecting them. Customers no longer buy goods for consumption only, they buy goods and services for consumption and the satisfaction that they getting from consuming goods and services. The cafeteria will lose its customers should it not change the manner in which it renders services to the customers. Over the past three years, in North-West University Mafikeng campus, students always took advantage of protests to show their grievances towards the poor services, by destroying the cafeteria infrastructures of the University. Should the cafeteria not improve its services, its reputation will be tainted.

According to Wilson et.al. (2012:78) services researchers have suggested that customers judge the quality of services based on the perceptions of technical outcome provided, the process by which that outcome was provided and the quality of the physical surroundings where the service is delivered. According to Wilson et al. (2012:73), Customers perceive services in terms of the quality of the service and how satisfied they are overall with their experiences.

According to Saglik et.al, (2014:103) service quality depends on the customer’s perception. Therefore, instead of the quality of service, “perceived quality of service” term is widely used in the literature. Perceived service quality is a result of the comparison of customer’s expectations prior to receiving the service and his/her actual service experience. It is assessed by the direction and magnitude of the difference between customers’ expectations and perceived performance (Saglik, et.al. 2014; 103). Service quality perception is developed through service encounters and service has to improve continually because customers’ needs and wants are ever changing, customers are losing patience over the poor quality services rendered by service providers, as a result, they are continuously raising their voices, and nowadays a small complaint on social networks can destroy the reputation of a company.

Bhatia (2017) explains that a customer turnaround time is the time within which a specific activity or step or process is completed. When customers purchase at cafeteria they have a specific time in mind expecting their orders to be completed. Turnaround time is one of the factors that students considers in building their perceptions about the cafeteria. Students have limited time due to academic workload, so they expect to be served very quickly. Students use turnaround time as one of the factors to determine if the service quality is excellent or poor.
In this study, the researcher has empirically investigated the student’s perception of quality of service at the cafeteria in North West University Mafikeng campus.

1. 1 BackgroundThis section has elaborated more on the research problem.

North West University Campus has a population of 12489 students as shown in the University Profile (2017). The university residence accommodates 2985 students on campus while 9504 students are residing off campus. During an interview conducted on 03 April 2018, Ms. Maritz stated that the cafeteria has 19 employees (only one employee control the cash registers at each service point while the remaining 17 employees take and prepare orders). The cafeteria has two service points. The cafeteria serve 4000 customers daily from 07:00 to 22:00, peak hours are from 13:00-15:00 during the day and 20:00-22:00 in the evening while off-peak hours are from 07:00-12:00 during the day and 16:00 to 19:00 in the evening. Maritz also revealed that the university cafeteria can accommodates 162 customers who buy and dine at the cafeteria, the cafeteria serves chips with bread, sandwiches with drinks and a plate consisting salads and relish which can be either meat or chicken.

The students have an informal Facebook group called North-West University Mafikeng Campus where they discuss their issues. A particular student posted a picture of the long queues that occurs at the cafeteria during peak hours on Facebook Group as shown on Appendix 1. On the Facebook group, most students complained that the customer turnaround time at the cafeteria is too long and they sometimes have to attend classes on empty stomachs. During an interview conducted on 03 April 2018, Ms. Maritz stated that when students pay using cash and bank cards, it takes about two minutes to process payments for those who are using bank cards and the turnaround time during peak hours is 15 minutes while during off-peak hours is 7 minutes. During observations, the researcher has discovered that the turnaround time during peak hours is sometimes close to 25 minutes.

Mealtimes in the cafeteria can be used to promote a healthy eating lifestyle and also encourage the students to try new foods (The American Occupational Therapy Association, 2013:1). The Cafeteria can be used as a tool of encouraging students to eat healthy and have an opportunity to try other meals that they have never tasted before.
The American Occupational Therapy Association (2013:1) summarizes the benefits of having a cafeteria as a place where students get to enjoy a meal and socialize with peers. The cafeteria provides students an opportunity to build friendships while enjoying a meal, Cafeterias allow students to take a break away from their classroom challenges and come more ready to learn. Students cannot always talk about school work, the cafeteria creates an environment where students can just talk about other aspects of life besides school work.

Pressure to eat fast may hinder good food choices and cause more food waste (The American Occupational Therapy Association, 2013:1). The long queues at the cafeteria shorten the lunchtime and result in students being unable to complete their meals. Another Challenge is that the students leave the cafeteria untidy as shown on Appendix 2(B).

1.2 Problem Statement.Arora and Mahankale (2012:13) explain that a problem statement should find the explicit gap in the knowledge needed for practice and must resolve the determination of the purpose of the study. Pumela (2011:58) enunciates that a problem statement must not articulate explicitly the coherent and objective of the total research effort and permit a specific research activity. The problem statement identifies the problem that the researcher will need to solve in order to achieve the purpose of conducting the study. This section has identified the problem that had to be looked into in this study.

This study looked into the extended turnaround times experienced at the cafeteria during peak hours which were a cause for concern and had to be addressed.

1.3 Purpose of the study.
The research purpose is the statement of “why” the study is being conducted, or the goal of the study (Simon 2011:1). According, Johnson, and Christensen (2014:160), also affirm that purpose of the study expresses the researcher’s intent or the study’s objective. This statement follows logically from the identification of one or more research problems.
Thus, the purpose of this study was to proffer solutions to the problems experienced in the cafeteria at Mafikeng Campus.
1.4 Research Questions.Research question is a particularly significant step in research as it narrows the research aim and objective down to specific areas the study will address (Creswell 2014; Johnson ; Christensen, 2014:162). Research questions are important as they assist the researcher in the choice of research approach, the determination of sample and sample size, applicable instrument of data collection and data analysis techniques
1.4.1 Primary Research Question in this research project was: What needed to be done to improve the service delivery at the North-West University Mafikeng campus student cafeteria? The following subsidiary questions were framed to further define the focus of this research.

1.4.2 Secondary research questions were as follows:Was the infrastructure at the cafeteria suitable for efficient service delivery?
Did they have suitable technology to process orders quickly?
Were there enough service points for customers at the cafeteria?
Were the employees well trained for the service they are rendering?
Were there enough employees to cope with customer numbers?
1.5 Research Objectives of the study.Research objectives are specific statements indicating necessary information that must be collected to solve the problem by enabling the decision alternative (Thomas ; Hodges, 2010:39; Burns ; Bush, 2014:50).

The objectives of this study were to:
Determine whether the available infrastructure was suitable for efficient service delivery.

Establish if there was adequate technology to process orders quickly.

Determine if there was a need for employees to undergo training.

Suggest measures that could be taken to reduce the turnaround time at the cafeteria.
1.6 Delimitations of the study.

Delimitations describe the scope of the study or establish parameters or limits for the study (Bryman ; Bell,2015:5-6). The researcher sets certain parameters that will help him or her to be able to have control over various aspects of the study such as the number of participants, the location where the study will be conducted etc.
This study was delimited to the North West University Mafikeng Campus Cafeteria. The participants of this study were the students who were registered with North-West University Mafikeng Campus when the study was conducted. The study was confined to matters relating to the perception of students on the quality of service at the cafeteria in Mafikeng campus.

1.7 Ethical Considerations.The term ethics is a systematic approach to understanding, analyzing, and distinguishing matters of right and wrong, good and bad, and admirable and deplorable as they relate to the well-being of and the relationships among sentient beings (Rich, 2013:4). Ethical considerations serve as a guideline to the researcher by indicating moral conduct that should be followed in order to conduct research and the immoral conduct that should be avoided in conducting research.

The following were the ethical considerations that the researcher adhered to.

Obtain authority to conduct research from relevant authorities: The researcher requested a letter of introduction from the university to present to the management of the cafeteria to allow him to conduct his study for research purposes.

The Principle of Voluntary Participation: The researcher did not force students to participate in the study. The right of any student to choose to not participate in this study was respected.

The requirement of informed consent: The researcher requested for permission from the students to include them in the study.

Protection of participants from exposure to risk or harm: This study did not put the lives of participants at risk as it was not conducting any experiments, all that was required from the participants was their perception regarding the quality of service that they were receiving at the cafeteria.

The principle of Anonymity: The identities of participants were not revealed or made known to other parties.

Information from other sources was duly acknowledged.

1.8 Significance of the study.The North-West University Mafikeng campus and students of North University Mafikeng Campus benefited from this study. The Cafeteria management understood how they were perceived by customers and were able to consider taking measures to improve on factors such as long customer turnaround time in order exceed customer’s expectations. Students were able to raise issues that the cafeteria management needed to address to meet their needs.

1.9 Outline of Chapters in the Final reportChapter 1: Introduction.

The chapter outlined the general overview of the study, included introduction to and the background of the study, the problem statement, the research questions, research objectives and the delimitations of the study; ethical considerations and the significance of the study.

Chapter 2: Literature Review.

This chapter reviewed: the history of quality management; the role of service quality in the cafeteria; understanding dimensions of service quality; service quality, student satisfaction and service quality gaps; improving facility layout to improve the flow of production; improving the hygiene knowledge of food staff to satisfy the students; the effects of queues on student purchases and waiting time; service quality and student satisfaction.
Chapter 3: Research Methodology.

This chapter addressed the research methodology and the research design that was used in the study. The Population of the study, the sample frame, data collection methods, and tools and data analysis.

Chapter 4: Presentation of results.

This chapter presented the findings of the study, interpret and analyzed them using tables and graphs.

Chapter 5: Discussions and Recommendations.

This Chapter explained the findings of study and made suggestions and concluding remarks.

Chapter 22. Introduction to literature review.This literature review was written in order to understand what has been written about issues that were related to the Perception of Students on the Quality of Service at the Cafeteria in University of North-West Mafikeng campus. The literature review materials were obtained from the academic journals and books. The review of sources was organized by using themes as follows: the history of quality management; the role of service quality in the cafeteria; understanding dimensions of service quality; service quality, student satisfaction and service quality gaps; improving facility layout to improve the flow of production; improving the hygiene knowledge of food staff to satisfy the students; the effects of queues on student purchases and waiting time; service quality and student satisfaction.

2.1 The History of Quality Management.Hoang (2017) found that the word quality was discovered back in the 13th century, it came from the old French word “qualite” and Latin word “qualitas”, which meant “of what sort”, it emphasized on the nature of an object. Quality was understood as a feature of an object. Quality was understood as a standard that had to be followed to ensure that a service or a product has met the set requirements (Hoang, 2017).

Hoang (2017) highlighted that when the cafeteria had realized that its products and services were below the set standards, the products and services would not be sold to customers because they would be found guilty of having compromised quality at the expense of student’s health and safety. Hoang (2017) emphasized that students compared the actual service performance against their expected service performance in order to determine if the products and services that were offered by the cafeteria were of a good or poor quality.

2.2 The role of service quality in the cafeteria.Nejadjavad and Gilaninnia (2016) discovered that the increasing role of cafeterias in the economy resulted in quality service being the foundation of competition in the catering industry. It was understood that the cafeterias were using quality management to understand the expectations that students had regarding quality of service, quality management was also used to understand the elements of service quality which were to be applied to address student dissatisfaction. Students found it challenging to assess the quality of service that was offered by the cafeteria because services were defined as intangible in their nature (Nejadjavad ; Gilaninnia, 2016).
One of the reasons cafeterias were paying attention to service quality is because it was discovered that service quality did not just affect the operations of the cafeteria, it also affected the profitability of the cafeteria. It was understood that well-planned service quality standards resulted in students being satisfied with the offerings of the cafeteria. The poor quality service at the cafeteria was caused by employee behavior; competence and skills of employees; the physical layout of the cafeteria; reliability and lack of sufficient up-to-date technological equipment (Nejadjavad ; Gilaninnia, 2016).

Nejadjavad and Gilaninnia (2016) found that improving service quality was a tool that was used by the cafeterias to sustain their competitive advantage. Service quality played a major role in ensuring that students were satisfied with the services of the cafeteria. Service quality could encourage students to remain loyal to the cafeteria again (Nejadjavad ; Gilaninia, 2016).
2.3 Understanding the dimensions of Service Quality.Service quality was defined by Badara et.al, (2013) as the results of the assessment that was done by students through evaluating their service expectations compared to the actual service performed by the cafeteria. Badara et.al, (2013) highlighted that student satisfaction could be achieved through the ability of the cafeteria to offer goods and services that surpassed student’s expectations. Students were using the SERVEQUAL dimensions to measure their level of satisfaction regarding goods and services that were provided by the cafeteria. Student’s loyalty and students’ satisfaction was encouraged by having offered a quality service to students (Badara et.al, 2013).

Yarimoglu (2014) made a distinction between goods and services, goods were defined as tangible in a way that they could be touched while services were defined as intangible in a way that they could not be touched. It seemed very challenging for students to rate the quality of services because services were elaborated as not capable of being touched in their nature. Students used perceived service quality as a yardstick to make comparisons against the actual service received (Yarimoglu, 2014).

Yarimoglu (2014) mentioned that the dimensions of service quality were used as a criteria for measuring service quality. The service quality dimensions guided how a quality service should have occurred from the moment students entered by the cafeteria premises to the moment when they left the cafeteria premises (Yarimoglu, 2014).

Yarimoglu (2014) stated that there were about 10 dimensions which were discovered by Parasuraman in 1985. The literature review for this research focused on the five dimensions which were applicable at the cafeteria. The dimensions that were discussed were reliability, responsiveness, assurance, tangibles, and empathy.

The dimensions were elaborated below:
Reliability. Consistency of performance and dependability, accuracy in billing, keeping records correctly and performing the service right at the designated time.

Responsiveness Willingness or readiness of employees to provide a service, timeliness of service such as mailing the transaction slip immediately, calling the student back quickly and giving prompt services.

Assurance Courtesy, knowledge, ability of employees to inspire trust and confidence.

Tangibles Physical evidence, representativeness of the service, and other students in the service facility.

Empathy (Understanding / knowing the student). Understanding student needs, learning student’s specific requirements, providing individualized attention, and recognizing students.
Table 2.3
2.4 Service quality. Student satisfaction and service quality gaps.Dejadjavad and Gilaninia (2016) highlighted that student satisfaction and service quality were the main components that could make the cafeteria to be able to stand out from its competitors, they also stressed out that that cafeterias had a strong desire to build a better relationship with students which compelled them to develop and implement quality service standards for student’s needs to be met. Dejadjavad and Gilaninia (2016) concluded by stating that cafeterias had to listen to the voice of the students to avoid losing students, they also emphasized that it was impossible for student’s expectations to be met unless the service gaps were properly understood.

According to Archakova (2013), the following (Discussed on table 2.4) were the service gaps that had to be understood in order for student’s expectations to be met.

Promotional Gap The inability of the cafeteria to fulfill the expectations created in the minds of student’s mainly by marketing communications.

Understanding Gap The gap occurred due to the inaccurate understanding of student needs and priorities by managers of the cafeteria.
Procedural Gap The gap occurred due to the translation of student expectations into appropriate operating procedures and systems within the cafeteria.

Behavioral gap The difference between student expectations and the cafeteria’s performance focusing on how procedures adequately cover service delivery requirements.

Perception gap The difference between student performance perception and reality.
Table 2.4
2.5 Improving facility layout to improve the flow of production.Student’s cafeteria experienced a heavy flow of production at specific times of the day, such as breakfast, lunch, and dinner times, at which there was about 600 students who passed through the cafeteria for meals. Queuing times for students were extremely long and caused dissatisfaction in the meal periods (Cillie, 2017).
Cillie (2017) mentioned that student’s cafeteria efficiency could be improved by firstly developing a more efficient facility layout for the cafeteria. The most suitable layout plan that was suitable for the cafeteria was made on a criteria that focused on the cost, queuing time, and process simplicity. Business models were also drawn to guide the internal processes of the serving, dining and the kitchen areas and the models also showed how the internal process would operate once the recommendations were to be applied (Cillie, 2017).

2.6 Improving the hygiene knowledge of food staff to satisfy students.

Yardimci (2015) emphasized that food processors played an important role in the infection of digestive system diseases particularly by means of food. The author also highlighted that the microbiological quality of food was closely related to the health status of employees. Yardimci (2015) indicated that food processors played a major role in determining whether raw materials were suitable to be used to prepare meals for students. Sometimes food processors took raw materials that were not in a good condition to prepare meals for students. A lot of students at the cafeteria complained about stomach bugs that they had after consumption of rice and stew bought at the cafeteria. This complaint suggested that research should be conducted to find the cause of stomach bugs experienced by students after consumption of rice and stew bought at the cafeteria.

Preparation and cooking were identified as the phases of production in the catering industry. In this phases, food could be infected with bacteria through the equipment used in food preparation and other foods (Yardimci, 2015). This became relevant to this research because it suggested that it was necessary for the management to put more efforts to improve the preparation and cooking processes. The health of the students should not be compromised by trying to cut costs.

It was discovered that employing individuals who have awareness of hygiene in food processing could reduce the occurrence of foodborne diseases/poisoning. In the case of long-term employment, it was clear that the staff did not refresh their knowledge and tended to forget it (Yardimci, 2015). This suggested a need to train the staff. It was necessary to make employees of the cafeteria aware of various foodborne diseases and know how they can be reduced. Students complained about having stomach bugs almost every year, hence it deemed important to take corrective measures to understand why the management of the cafeteria was not doing anything about that. The food processing procedures at the cafeteria needed to be improved.

2.7 Effects of Queues on student Purchases and Waiting time.The number of students on the queues had a great effect on the quantity of products that were sold by the cafeteria. An average increase in the number of students in the queues could reduce the sales in the same manner as 5% increase in the price of products and services. Service capacity which determined the speed in which a line was moving had a smaller impact compared to the number of students who were in the queue. Students reacted differently to long queues, others left because they had no urgency on the usage of the product or service while others chose to remain in the queue because they urgently needed to use the product or services of the cafeteria (Lu et. al, 2013).

2.8 Service quality and student satisfaction.Findings of Kaura et al. (2015) indicated that student satisfaction acted as a mediating variable between service quality dimensions, perceived price and fairness, service convenience dimensions and student loyalty. Student satisfaction was a necessary condition for student loyalty. Although employee behavior; information technology; decision convenience transaction; benefit convenience, access convenience, and perceived price and fairness had a significant effect on student loyalty, yet the presence of student satisfaction assisted in intensifying this relationship. Student satisfaction particularly mediated the relationship between two variables (employee behavior and information technology) and student loyalty (Kaura et al. 2015).

This theme helped to understand student’s needs better and to understand if their loyalty relied on student satisfaction. Student loyalty could only be tested fairly if students had freedom of choice between service providers. Based on the complaints shown on the research proposal, it is clear that students are not satisfied with the quality of service rendered at the cafeteria, the most important issue was to find out why the students were loyal to the cafeteria even when they were not satisfied with the quality of service they received at the cafeteria.
Conclusion.Understanding the perception of students on their perception of the quality of service at the cafeteria could only be done through having studied their behavior. Quality service would help the cafeteria to have a competitive advantage and avoid loss of customers. The dimensions of service quality assisted cafeteria operators and employees to understand how a satisfactory service should occur from the beginning of a service encounter to the end of the service encounter. Students could only be satisfied if there was no gap between the service students expected and the service they received. Improvement in the layout of the cafeteria and having ensured that employees knew what students expected from them would had resulted in satisfactory service which would had served as a motivation for students to remain loyal to the cafeteria.

CHAPTER 33. Methodology3.1 introductionIn chapter three the main focus of the researcher was on the methods that were used to collect data for the study. The researcher used descriptive research design to serve as a blueprint for the study which was followed by the data collection methods, the population of the study was defined and the researcher also stated how the sample was selected.
According to Daniel (2018:1), research methodology ought to be concerned with the utilization of systematic approaches and procedures to investigate well-defined problems, underpinned by a set of specific epistemological and ontological assumptions.
Research methodology defined the steps that were taken by the researcher to solve the defined research problem.
3.2 Research Methodology.In this study quantitative research was followed. Students of North-West University Mafikeng Campus were invited to take part in providing information by filling in the questionnaires that were provided by the researcher. The advantage of quantitative research was that it was easy to analyze and interpret data because the data was in numerical form.

3.3 Research designAccording to Nassaji (2015:129), the goal of descriptive research design is to describe a phenomenon and its characteristics. This research was more concerned with what rather than how or why something has happened. The research sought to find out happened for the students of the North-West University Mafikeng campus to have a particular perception on the quality of service rendered by the Mafikeng cafeteria.

This study made use of quantitative research technique.

3.3.1 Quantitative research MethodQuantitative research is defined as research involving the administration of a set of structured questions with predetermined response options to a large number of respondents (Burns ; Bush, 2014:118). The respondents of this study were asked the same questions and had the same response options, as this made it for the researcher to analyze and interpret the results of the study.

According to Burns and Bush (2014:118), qualitative data can be quantified but only after the translations process has taken place. Data that sought to measure the quality of service offered by the cafeteria and the data that sought to measure customer satisfaction was translated by the researcher since it was not in a quantitative form before translation process took place.
The researcher translated answers from questions that had answers such as agree, disagree, very poor, poor, neutral, satisfactory, very satisfactory etc. into numerical data (for example if total respondents were 43; the results were that eight (8) students rated the quality of service at the cafeteria as very poor, five (5) students rated the quality of service as poor, twelve (12) students rated the quality of service as neutral, fourteen (14) students rated the quality of service as satisfactory while the remaining four (4) students rated the quality of service as very satisfactory.

3.4 Population.Etikan et.al (2016:1) highlights that population does not just refer to people only, but it also refers to the total quantity of the things or cases which are the subjects of the research. In the case of this research, population spoke of the group that the researcher was interested in studying in order to make a conclusion about that group of people. Members of the population that the researcher wanted to make conclusions from were required to have the same characteristics so that the findings of the research would become accurate.
The population of this study comprised of 12489 students who were registered with North-West University Mafikeng Campus when the study was conducted. The 12489 students were too many to participate in the study, as a result, the researcher was forced to only select a few students who were a sample of the study. The sample was drawn from the sample frame provided by the office of Mr. Franco Nkoana who was in charge of the Student Academic Lifecycle Administration office. The researcher selected a subset of the population in order to deal with a manageable number of respondents.

Focusing on the students of the North West University benefited the researcher in the following:
The students were easy to access.

The students were relevant to the study
It was less costly for the students to participate in the study.

3.5 Sample selection
The process through which a sample is extracted from a population is called sampling (Alvi, 2016:11). Sampling defines how the sample of the population will be drawn. The participants of this study had to be registered with North-West University Mafikeng campus when the study was conducted and also had be customers of the cafeteria at Mafikeng campus.
According to Etikan et.al (2016; 1), a sample is a portion of the population or the universe. The chosen sample ought to have the same characteristics of the entire population which the researcher sought to make inferences from. The sample of this study was made up of 43 Students from a population of 12489 students.

3.5.1 Probability sampling methodAccording to Alvi (2016:12), in probability sampling method, every member of the population has a known (non zero) probability of being included in the sample. Probability sampling method was used because it gave every member of the population a known opportunity to form part of the sample that was used in the study to make general conclusions about the entire population under study.

According to Alvi (2016:13), the use of probability method resulted in the following advantages for this study:
The sampling method reduced the chances of systematic errors.

The method minimized the chances of sampling biases.

A better representative sample was produced using probability sampling techniques.

Inferences drawn from sample were generalizable to the population.

Simple random sampling.

In this technique, every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected as subject (Sharma, 2017:750). Simple random sampling gave all the members an equal opportunity to be part of the sample to be used for the study, all members of the population had a known chance of being selected to participate in the study.

Sharma (2017, 750), highlighted the following as the advantages of simple random sampling:
It was very easy to assemble the sample because every member of the population had an equal chance of being selected.

The representativeness of the population could only be compromised by luck, meaning that the representativeness of the population had slim chances of being compromised.

It was reasonable to make generalizations from the results of the sample back to the population.

3.6 Data collection.Data collection refers to the process of using data collection tools to generate appropriate and good quality data (Smith, 2015:228). For the success of this study, the researcher made use of questionnaires to gather information about the perception that the students of North-West University had regarding the cafeteria at Mafikeng Campus. The Likert scale was used in the questionnaire to make it easy for the students to be able to rate the quality of service at the cafeteria.

3.6.1 Quantitative data collection method
Quantitative data collection method was used to collect data from the students through the use of the questionnaires which were administered by the students.
The researcher conducted one on one interview with Ms. Maritz at her office to have a proper understanding of how the cafeteria operates. Observations were done during the service encounter at North-West University Mafikeng campus cafeteria where the cafeteria employees and students were present to identify main issues that had to be solved. Questionnaires were done in print and were handed out to the students during their lectures through a formal arrangement with the respective lecturers of the students. The questions on the questionnaire were close-ended and self-administered by the students
3.6.2 Development of the questionnaire.
The questions were focused on the perception of students who were registered with North-West University and had past experiences as customers of the cafeteria at Mafikeng Campus. The questionnaires were structured in a close-ended manner and some questions made use of the Likert scale.
The questionnaires followed the quantitative structure and English was used as a medium of instruction for the respondents.

The questions was structured using a 5 point Likert scale where the respondents were instructed to rate the quality of service from 1 to 5 to show the dissatisfaction and satisfaction regarding the quality of service offered by the cafeteria at Mafikeng campus.

1. Very poor /Very dissatisfactory.

2. Poor / Dissatisfactory.

3.Neutral
4. Excellent /Satisfactory
5.Very excellent / Very satisfactory
3.6.3 Administration of questionnairesThe questionnaires were issued to 43 participants who were registered with North-West University and were customers of the cafeteria. The participants helped the researcher to find information that addressed the formulated research questions. The personal details of the participants were kept private and confidential in the process of administering the questionnaires
3.7 Data Analysis
Microsoft Office Excel was used to electronically capture the data. This software helped to present the data in a way that the readers found it easy to understand the results of the study. Tables and pie charts were used to interpret data and the findings of the study.
3.8 Ethical Considerations.
According to McKenna (2018:148), ethical research is important in such a way that it forces the researchers to be aware of their responsibilities in the ethical conduct and reporting of research, including the manner in which it was conducted. In this study, ethical considerations served as a tool that helped the researcher to conduct the research in a manner that was good and morally acceptable, ethical considerations helped the researcher to avoid wrong behavior in conducting the study.

The researcher sought for approval from the relevant authorities to conduct research at the cafeteria. The respondents participated in the study without being forced, participants had an opportunity stop being part of the study, and they did not face any penalty. The researcher sought for permission from the respondents to include them in conducting research. Respondents were not exposed to any risk or harmful behavior. The identity of respondents was protected against third parties. All the information and material obtained from other sources was acknowledged by the researcher.

3.8.1 Reliability.
Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure ((Heale ; Twycross, 2015:66). The researcher randomly asked some of the respondents the same questions that were on the questionnaire through a conversation and compared their oral responses against the responses given on the questionnaires. If the responses of the respondents were the same then there would be consistency and honesty from the respondents.
3.8.2 Validity.
Validity refers to the extent to which a concept is accurately measured in a quantitative study (Heale ; Twycross, 2015:66). The researcher ensured that the questions that were on the questionnaire addressed the research questions and objectives of the study.

3.8.3 Acknowledgement of sources.For the purpose of this study, the researcher obtained the relevant research material from the internet, scholarly journals, articles, books, interviews and the researcher acknowledged all the sources for using their materials for a better understanding and successful completion of this study.

3.8.4 Gaining Access.According to Kondowe and Booyens (2014:146), successful data gathering depends on how easy or difficult it is to access the site and the respondents, the researchers have to build and maintain relationships with the participants and encourage them to play their roles in order to obtain the necessary data.

The researcher sought for permission from the management of the university represented by the supervisor, the management of the Mafikeng Campus cafeteria and the students who participated in the study. The letter from the supervisor allowed the researcher to have an interview with Ms. Maritz who give the researcher permission to conduct the study at the cafeteria. The letter of permission was presented to the lecturers who allowed the researcher to use their students as respondents of the study during their lectures for administration of the questionnaires.
ConclusionThis chapter sought to provide the researcher with the detailed steps that had to be followed in order to administer this study. The research methodology was discussed, the researcher discussed quantitative research method as the approach to be used to collect data. The researcher used the descriptive research design to which points out the evidence that should be gathered to answer the research questions. The population of the study was identified and a simple random technique was discussed as technique to be used in selecting the sample for this study. A survey method was used to interview the respondents.

Chapter four4. Data Analysis and presentation of results.4.1 Introduction.Chapter four provided data analyses and interpretation of results from the data that was collected by the researcher. The aim of this chapter was to ensure that data was correctly analyzed from proper information which was to be used by the researcher and the readers. Data analysis was divided into two sections or types. The first type of information collected was primary data which was collected by the researcher from the respondents using self-administered questionnaires. The other type of data was known as secondary data which could be found externally through having sought what other researchers have previously found on the given topic. This type of data could be found through the use of the internet, using academic journals and visiting the library.

Interpretation was defined as the act of explaining the collected data through writing in a manner where the author would either criticizes or supports the found data. It included relating the results of the study and the findings of the study to the existing theoretical framework and model showing whether the findings were supported or not supported by the existing theories.
4.2 Interpretation of quantitative data.Quantitative data which was used has been done using Microsoft Excel as a means of analyzing data. The interpretation of the quantitative data was done using the items reflected on the questionnaires. Below were the questions and interpretations of the responses from the respondents.
From the 43 questionnaires that were issued out, all 43 of them were returned to the researcher. The interpretation of the research was based on the responses of the participants in the questionnaires.

4.3 Presentation of the results.The results on the demographic profile.

Figure 4.3.1 Age

Source: Primary Data
Figure 4.3.1 showed that the majority of participants indicated by 67% on the pie chart were between the age group of 21-25 years, followed by 26% of participants in the age group 15-20 years, 5% of participants were in the age group of 26-30 years while the minority of participants indicated by 2% on the pie chart were between the age of 31 or more years old.

Figure 4.3.2 Gender

Source: Primary Data
Figure 4.3.2 indicated that there were more males (56%) than females (44%) who took part in the study. this showed the distribution of gender within the university and those who were customers of the cafeteria.

Figure 4.3.3 Level of study

Source: Primary Data
Figure 4.3.3 indicated that majority of participant were in their 1st year of study (37%), followed by those who were on their 2nd year of study (35%), 14% of the participants were in their 4th year of study, 12% were in their third year of study while the minority (2%) were doing their post-graduate studies.

Figure 4.3.4 on campus or off campus resident.

Source: Primary data
Figure 4.3.4 showed that the majority (81%) of students who participated in this study were staying off-campus while the minority (19%) of students were residing on campus.

Figure 4.3.5 Using Bursary of cash.

Source: Primary Data.

Figure 4.3.5 indicated that majority (72%) of the participants were using a bursary while the minority (28%) were using cash.

Section B: Interpretation of research questions on the questionnaire.1. Do you think that the infrastructure at the cafeteria is suitable to assist in providing a satisfactory and efficient service?
Table 4.3.6 suitability of Infrastructure.

  Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Yes 10 23 23
No 33 77 100
Total 43 100  
Source: Primary data
Table 4.3.6 showed that the majority (77%) of the participants thought that the infrastructure at the cafeteria was not suitable for providing a satisfactory and efficient service while the minority (23%) thought that the infrastructure at the cafeteria was suitable for satisfactory and efficient service.

2. Does the cafeteria have suitable technology to process orders quickly?
Table 4.3.7 suitability of technology.

  Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Yes 5 12 12
No 38 88 100
Total 43 100  
Source: Primary data
Table 4.3.7 showed that majority (88%) of participants thought that the cafeteria did not have suitable technology to process orders quickly while the remaining 12% of participants thought that the cafeteria had the suitable technology to process orders quickly.

3. Are you using cash, bank card or bursary card to pay at the cafeteria for purchases?
Table 4.3.8 Method of purchase.

  Frequency Percentage Cumulative
Percentage
Cash 14 33 33
Bank card 1 2 35
Bursary card 28 65 100
Total 43 100  
Source: Primary Data
Table 4.3.8 showed that majority (65%) of the participants were using Bursary cards for purchases followed by 33% of participants who were using cash while the remaining 2% were using bank cards for purchases.

4. When you pay using any card, (On average) how long does it take for the transaction to be processed?
Table 4.3.9 Customer turnaround time.

  Frequency Percentage Cumulative
Percentage
1-2 minutes 11 26 26
3-5 Minutes 9 21 47
6 or more minutes 23 53 100
Total 43 100  
Source: Primary Data
Table 4.3.9 showed that most (53%) of the participants thought that it took six (6) minutes or more to process transactions followed by 26% who thought that it took between one to two (1-2) minutes to process transactions while the remaining 21% of participants thought that it took three to five (3-5) minutes to process transactions.

5. Are there enough service points at the cafeteria?
Table 4.3.10 Service points
  Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Yes 4 9 9
No 39 91 100
Total 43 100  
Source: Primary data
Table 4.3.10 indicated that 91% of the respondents thought that there was not enough service points at the cafeteria while the remaining 9% thought that there were enough service points at the cafeteria.

6. Are you satisfied with the quality of service at the cafeteria?
Table 4.3.11 Satisfaction of quality of service.

  Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Yes 4 9 9
No 39 91 100
Total 43 100  
Source: Primary data
Table 4.3.11 showed that most (91%) of the participants were not satisfied with the quality of service at the cafeteria while the remaining 9% were satisfied with quality of service.

7. Please rate your level of satisfaction at the cafeteria on a scale of 1-5.

Table 4.3.12 Level of satisfaction.

  Frequency Percentage Cumulative
Percentage
Very Dissatisfactory 10 23 23
Dissatisfactory 18 42 65
Neutral 14 33 98
Satisfactory 1 2 100
Very satisfactory 0 0 100
Total 43 100  
Source: Primary Data
Table 4.3.12 showed that majority (42%) were dissatisfied with the quality of service at the cafeteria, followed by 33% of participants who were neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, 23% of the participants were dissatisfied with the quality of service at the cafeteria and 2% of the participants were satisfied while none of the participants were very satisfied with the quality of service at the cafeteria.

8. Why are you a regular customer at the cafeteria?
Table 4.3.13 Reason for being a regular customer.

  Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage
I am satisfied with the quality of service 1 2 2
There is no other supplier available 42 98 100
Total 43 100  
Source: Primary data
Table 4.3.13 showed that majority (98%) of participants were regular customers of the cafeteria because there was no other supplier to purchase from while the remaining 2% were regular customers of the cafeteria because they were satisfied with the quality of service.

9. Is there a need to improve service delivery at the cafeteria?
Table 4.3.14 Service delivery improvements.

  Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Yes 43 100 100
No 0 0 100
Total 43 100  
Source: Primary data
Table 4.3.14 showed that all participants (100%) thought that there was a need to improve service delivery at the cafeteria.

10. Are the employees of the cafeteria offering a quality service?
Table 4.3.15 Quality of service by employees.

  Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Yes 21 49 49
No 22 51 100
Total 43 100  
Source: Primary data
Table 4.3.15 indicated that the majority (51%) of participants thought that the cafeteria employees were not offering a quality service compared to the minority (49%) of participants who thought that the employees of the cafeteria were offering a quality service.
11. Do the employees need to undergo training to offer a satisfactory service?
Table 4.3.16 Need for training.

  Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Yes 29 67 67
No 14 33 100
Total 43 100  
Source: Primary data
Table 4.3.16 indicated that majority (67%) of participants thought that the employees needed to undergo training while (33%) thought that the employees of the cafeteria did not need to undergo training to offer a satisfactory service.

12. Are there enough employees at the cafeteria to deal with customer numbers?
Table 4.3.17 Enough Employees.

  Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Yes 11 26 26
No 32 74 100
Total 43 100  
Source: Primary data
Table 4.3.17 showed that most (74%) of the participants thought that the cafeteria did not have enough employees to deal with customer numbers while the remaining 26% of participants thought that the cafeteria had enough employees to deal with customer numbers.

13. Do you think it is necessary for the cafeteria to improve its set standards of quality service?
Table 4.3.18 Quality improvements
  Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Yes 42 98 98
No 1 2 100
Total 43 100  
Source: Primary data
Table 4.3.18 indicated that the majority (98%) of the participants thought that it was necessary for the cafeteria to improve its set standards while the remaining 2% of the participants thought that it was not necessary for the cafeteria to improve its set standards of quality service.

14. Do you think that the quality of service at the cafeteria will improve if the university regulates the cafeteria?
Table 4.3.19 University regulation
  Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Yes 41 95 95
No 2 5 100
Total 43 100  
Source: Primary data
Table 4.3.19 indicated that most (95%) of the participants thought that the cafeteria would improve its services under the regulation of the university while the minority (5%) of the participants thought that the service would not improve its services even if the university regulated the cafeteria.

15. Do you think it is necessary for the cafeteria to clarify the roles of customers in delivering a quality service?
Table 4.3.20 Clarifying customer roles.

  Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Yes 39 91 91
No 4 9 100
Total 43 100  
Source: Primary Data
Table 4.3.20 indicated that the majority (91%) thought that it was necessary for the cafeteria to clarify the roles of customers in delivering a quality service while the minority (9%) of participants thought that the cafeteria did not need to clarify customer roles.

16. Do you think that the introduction of a food delivery motorcycle service charged at a reasonable delivery cost to students will assist the cafeteria to have shorter queues?
Table 4.3.21 Delivery motorcycles.

  Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Yes 31 72 72
No 12 28 100
Total 43 100  
Source: Primary Data
Table 4.3.21 showed that the majority (72%) of the participants thought that the introduction of delivery motorcycles would reduce the long queues at the cafeteria while the remaining 28% of participants thought that the introduction of delivery motorcycles at the cafeteria would not make the queues shorter.

17. On a scale of 1-5, how would you rate the cleanliness of the cafeteria?
Table 4.3.22 Level of cleanliness of the cafeteria.

  Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Very dirty 4 9.30 9.30
Dirty 12 27.91 37.21
Neutral 23 53.49 90.70
Clean 3 6.98 97.68
Very clean 1 2.33 100
Total 43 100  
Source: Primary Data
Table 4.3.22 showed that majority (53, 49%) of the students found the cafeteria to be neither dirty or clean, followed by 27, 91% of participants who found the cafeteria to be dirty whereas 9, 30% of participants found the cafeteria to be very dirty and 6, 98% of the participants found the cafeteria to be clean while the remaining 2, 33% of participants found the cafeteria very clean.

18. Do you think that the use of suggestion boxes will assist the cafeteria to identify the causes of student dissatisfaction and be able to solve them?
Table 4.3.23 Use of suggestion boxes.

  Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Yes 40 93 93
No 3 7 100
Total 43 100  
Source: Primary Data
Table 4.3.23 showed that most (93%) of the students thought that the use of suggestion boxes would help the cafeteria to be able to identify causes of students dissatisfaction and be able to solve them while the remaining 7% thought that the use of suggestion boxes would not help the cafeteria to identify causes of student dissatisfaction and be able to solve them.

ConclusionThis chapter represented the findings of the data that was collected through the use of the questionnaires. The findings were analyzed and interpreted and have addressed the primary research question, secondary research questions and the research objectives of the study.

Chapter 55. Discussions and Recommendations5.1 IntroductionThe purpose of this study was to proffer solutions to the problems that were experienced at the cafeteria. The main focus was on finding solutions to the long turnaround time experienced by the students at the cafeteria. Data based on student’s perception regarding the quality of service experienced at the cafeteria was collected from the North West University Mafikeng campus students who were registered for the period when the study was conducted and were also customers of the cafeteria. Data was collected through using questionnaires focus on students from undergraduate level of study to students who were in their postgraduate studies. This chapter discusses the findings and outlines the recommendations that should be applied in order to reduce the long customer turnaround time experienced by the students Conclusions and recommendations were made based on the data collected and analyzed in chapter 4. The aim of the chapter was to find the causes of long customer turnaround time and suggest measures that should be taken to reduce the long customer turnaround time experienced by the students at the cafeteria and improve the quality of service experienced by students at the cafeteria.
Many organizations are starting to understand how offering a quality service results in improved customer service and improved quality of service experienced by their customers. Organizations are investing money in activities that would result in improved service for customers. Organizations are even offering incentives to employees as a way of encouraging them to keep on improving the quality of service that they are providing to the customers. Offering a quality of service helps organizations to have a competitive advantage over their rivals.

5.2 Discussion of findings.
In order to make proper recommendations, it was imperative for the researcher to link the findings of the study to the five quality dimensions of service quality. This would make it less complicated for the readers to understand the findings of the study, this would also assist in determining whether the factors affecting dimensions of service quality were correctly performed.

1. Assurance: This refers to the knowledge, ability of employees to inspire trust and confidence
According to the findings, 51% of the participants indicated that the employees of the cafeteria do not offer a quality service. This suggested that 51% of the students did not have confidence in the abilities of the employees of the cafeteria to offer a quality service.

Findings also indicated that 67% of the participants indicated that employees of the cafeteria needed to undergo training, this suggested that the participants were not confident in the skills of cafeteria employees to offer a quality service.

2. Reliability: Refers to consistency in performance and reliability in providing a quality service
Findings indicated that 98% of respondents were regular customers of the cafeteria because they had no other supplier to purchase from, 91% of respondents also indicated that they were not satisfied with the quality of service rendered by the cafeteria. This suggests that the quality of service at the cafeteria is inconsistent.

3. Tangibles: this refers to the physical surroundings, representatives of the service and other students in the service facility.

Findings indicated that 77% of the participant thought that the infrastructure of the cafeteria was not suitable for providing a satisfactory and efficient service
Findings also indicated that 53.49% of participants found the cafeteria to be neither dirty nor clean, 27, 91% of participants found it to be dirty and 9, 30% found the cafeteria to be very dirty.

4. Responsiveness: Refers to the readiness or the willingness of employees to provide a service, it also addresses the timeliness of the service.

Findings indicated that 53% of the participants thought that it took six minutes or more to process transactions electronically. Findings also indicated that 88% of participants thought that the cafeteria did not have suitable technology to process orders quickly. Findings also indicated that 74% of the participants thought that the cafeteria did not have enough employees to deal with customer numbers.

5. Empathy: Refers to understanding student’s needs and learning student’s specific requirements
Findings indicated that 42% of respondents rated their level as dissatisfactory, 33% of participants indicated their level of satisfaction as neutral. This suggested that the cafeteria does not meet the individual needs of most students.

Other findings indicated the following:
1. Method of payment
Findings indicated that 33% of the participants were using cash, 2% of participants were using bank cards while 65% of the participants were using bursary cards.

2. Service points at the cafeteria.

Findings indicated that 91% of the participants thought that there were no enough service points at the cafeteria while the remaining 9% indicated that the present service points were enough.

3. Improvements of service delivery at the cafeteria.
Findings indicated that 100% of the participants thought that there was a need for the cafeteria to improve its services.

4 Improvement of the quality of service under the regulation of the university.

Findings indicated that 95% of the participants thought that the cafeteria would improve its services under the regulation of the university.

5. Clarifying the roles of students during the service encounter.

Findings indicated that 91% of participants thought that the cafeteria should clarify the roles of students in delivering a quality service.

6. Usage of suggestion boxes.

Suggestion boxes are a form of communique used by organizations to understand what customers think should be done to improve the quality of service at the cafeteria.

Findings indicated that 93% of participants thought that the use of suggestion boxes would assist the cafeteria to identify causes of student dissatisfaction and be able to solve them.

5.3 Recommendations.The recommendations were grouped into themes based on the findings of the study that will reduce the long customer turnaround time at the cafeteria.

1. Improving the quality of service.

The quality of service can only be improved if there are set standards for delivering a quality service. The cafeteria has to find out what students want and set standards based on that information. The cafeteria should issue purchase slips for customers that will allow them to make three to five words comment based on their service experience. The cafeteria should also ensure that the purchase slips have the names of patrons who were responsible for student orders on that day and an employee should be assigned to read the student comments and develop a fully detailed monthly report. The comments on the purchase slips could be used during performance appraisals interviews to help employees to improve on their weaknesses. Students should be encouraged to take their rubbish to the rubbish bins once they are done dining, students should be made to understand the importance of hygiene, and this could be done through writing instructions on the dining tables and making sure that there are enough rubbish bins in the cafeteria.

2. Clarifying the roles of students and employees in delivering a quality service.

The cafeteria should have a detailed step by step instructions of delivering a satisfactory student service. Students should know the steps they must take from the moment they enter by the premises of the cafeteria until they have consumed the services of the cafeteria. A short video clip could be made and be frequently played on the screens that are available at the cafeteria, this will be easy for students to understand and even students who will be coming to the cafeteria to purchase for the first time will not be confused. Employees also need to know the steps that they need to take in order to deliver a quality service to the students. Guidelines could be written down and be posted on the staff notice board at the kitchen and the cafeteria management can make it a necessary requirement for employees to know the guidelines by heart.

3. Improving the layout of the cafeteria.

The cafeteria serves about 4000 students daily. An increase in service points would result in a quick service. There should be different service points for making orders and collecting orders. The use of a single line based on the first come first serve principle would be fair for all students. Using a single line will reduce the average the average waiting times and eliminate the stress that customers go through in having to choose the “right” line when multiple (two) lines are used. Extra-long, portable retractable belts could be used to manage the direction of the queues. This will assist in eliminating the opportunity for students to jump queues which is unfair to other students. The servicescape layout should be designed in such a way that it eliminates the possibility of first-time students having to figure out their service encounter journey on their own.

4. Usage of delivery motorcycles and call and collect option.

The use of delivery motorcycles could assist in making the queues to be short. The cafeteria could deliver at an additional cost of R5 for customers who are staying within five kilometers from the university. What sometimes discourages off-campus students from purchasing at the cafeteria is the distance that they have to walk in order to make purchases, hence this service will be to their convenience. The call and collect system could also be applied, more especially during the peak hours because the queues at the cafeteria are unbearable during that time.

5. Finding the causes of student dissatisfaction through the use of suggestion boxes.

The use of suggestion boxes is the cheapest way of finding the causes of student dissatisfaction and also the less costly method of finding what students want. Students became discouraged when they put their suggestions in the suggestion boxes but no action is taken by the management. The cafeteria has to offer feedback to the students based on their suggestions and apply the most suitable suggestions for providing a quality service for students. Feedback based on student suggestions should be made available to students on a monthly basis.

6. Upgrading technological equipment.
The results showed that 53% of participants indicated that the swiping machines took six minutes or more to process transactions. The cafeteria needs to invest in latest swiping machines which approve the transaction instantly.

7. Improving the quality of service under the regulation of the university.

The cafeteria will only offer a quality service once it is under the regulation of the university. Both the university and the cafeteria have the interests of students at heart. The cafeteria can work with the university’s department of health to set food processing standards and quality service standards. In the outbreaks of diseases such as listeriosis, the knowledge possessed by the staff of the department will come in handy for the cafeteria and the health of the students will not be compromised.
Conclusion.The study addressed the research questions and achieved the research objectives and also discussed measures that should be taken to reduce the long customer turnaround time at the cafeteria in North West University Mafikeng campus which was a cause for concern. From the data collected, findings and results provided the evidence that the cafeteria was not offering a quality service to students. Findings indicated that measures such as improving the layout of the cafeteria and upgrading the technological equipment for processing transactions will result in an efficient and improved service delivery. Applying the suggested measures will result in students being satisfied and they will be encouraged to remain loyal to the cafeteria because of its improved quality of service.
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Appendix 1 Long Customer queues
Meanwhile at the cafeteria… (Sithole, 2017)
This picture shows how long the queues are at the cafeteria during peak hours and on paydays for parents and bursary holders. During such days the service is very slow which is a call for concern.

Appendix 2 Poor quality food
When you decide to buy dinner at cafeteria and they serve you rotten food. I mean I could smell that the food is wasted and the lady could smell it too but she still serves it to me (Ratlou, 2016).

This picture shows some of the complaints that customers have. This shows that measures must be taken to ensure that customers enjoy the value of what they are paying for.

Appendix 2(b) the dirtiness of the cafeteria
(Source: NWU Mafikeng Campus Group, Posted by Percival Maseko on the 17th of March 2018).

“DEAR STUDENTS!!
This is the current situation in Cafeteria… I don’t know but why would they open if the place is so untidy…

Where are we supposed to eat our food after having bought them…?
Please take our health serious…and clean this mess “(Maseko, 2018)
Appendix 3 Sample size results
Calculate Your Sample Size:Population Size:
Confidence Level (%):
Margin of Error (%):
CALCULATE Sample Size = 43
Informed Consent Letter
PO BOX 981
MAHIKENG
2735
13/08/2018
Dear Participants
Good day, my name is Aubrey Chauke, I am a BCom Honours Management student at the North West University, Mafikeng campus. I am doing research to understand the Perception that students have regarding the quality of service they receive at the cafeteria. I would like to invite you to participate in the study and your assistance will be highly appreciated. Should you agree to participate in the study, the following ethical considerations will be adhered to:
Your participation is voluntary and you may withdraw from the study anytime you wish.

Your identity will not be disclosed and any information you provide will be held strictly confidentially.

You will not be exposed to risk or harm.

I thank you in advance for your participation.

Yours sincerely
Chauke A.T
QuestionnaireSection A: Demographic Profile.

Instruction: Please make a tick or make an (X) on the appropriate box for the following Questions:
316589422673101. What is your age?
3165894263704015-20
3165894240294021-25
33211702513880026-30
31 or more
3165894239707002. Are you a male or female?
31658942421750Male
31658942729910Female
Other
3162300238125003. What is your level of study?
316230027178001st year
316230027622502nd year
316230028067003rd year
340042525654104th year
Post Graduate
340042522733004. Are you staying on campus or off-campus?
34004252609850On campus
Off-Campus
326707526987505. Are you using bursary or cash?
32670752743200Bursary
Cash
Section B: Research Questions
Instruction: Please make a tick on the appropriate box for the following Questions:
308610044957901. Do you think that the infrastructure at the cafeteria is suitable to assist in providing a satisfactory and efficient service?
30861002743200Yes
No
3086100274320dd
0dd
2. Does the cafeteria have suitable technology to process orders quickly?
30861002692400Yes
No
342900024003003. Are you using cash, bank card or bursary card to pay at the cafeteria for purchases?
34290002730490Cash
Bank Card
342900063500Bursary Card
342900035369604. When you pay using any card, (On average) how long does it take for the transaction to be processed?
342900021653501-2 Minutes
3524250240030003-5 Minutes
6 or more Minutes
3038475254000005. Are there enough service points at the cafeteria?
30384752584450Yes
No
303847523876006. Are you satisfied with the quality of service at the cafeteria?
30384752438400Yes
No
3743325262254007. Please rate your level of satisfaction at the cafeteria on a scale of 1-5.

1. Very dissatisfactory –
37433252349502. Dissatisfactory –
37433256604003. Neutral –
361950025717503486150-5715004. Satisfactory –
5. Very satisfactory –
424638622796508. Why are you a regular customer at the cafeteria?
42463862514600I am satisfied with the quality of service
There is no other supplier at campus
303847525145909. Is there a need to improve service delivery at the cafeteria?
Yes
3038475127000No
3038475245744010. Are the employees of the cafeteria offering a quality service?
30384752698740Yes
No
3038475250190011. Do the employees need to undergo training to offer a satisfactory service?
30384752832100Yes
No
3038475234950012. Are there enough employees at the cafeteria to deal with customer numbers?
30384752495560Yes
No
3036498439456013. Do you think it is necessary for the cafeteria to improve its set standards of quality service?
30364982878350Yes
No
30364974652990014. Do you think that the quality of service at the cafeteria will improve if the university regulates the cafeteria?
Yes
303649855950No
3036498430758015. Do you think it is necessary for the cafeteria to clarify the roles of customers in delivering a quality service?
Yes
3019245-5175800No
16. Do you think that the introduction of a food delivery motorcycle service charged at a reasonable delivery cost to students will assist the cafeteria to have shorter queues?
3096883-1207700030968832735400Yes
No
33815542353450017. On a scale of 1-5, how would you rate the cleanliness of the cafeteria?
325215825506601. Very dirty
325215826616002. Dirty
325215826862903. Neutral
3381554280358004. Clean
5. Very Clean
309688343194400 18. Do you think that the use of suggestion boxes will assist the cafeteria to identify the causes of student dissatisfaction and be able to solve them?
30968832538080Yes
No