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1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background
Energy is fundamental for ensuring sustainable development. because, it is a key input for all economic, social, political and environmental development activities (Byakola et al., 2009; Guta, 2016). Appropriate access to energy supply can directly affect productivity, income, health, as well as can ensure gender equality, education, and access to other linked issues of basic services (Guta, 2016; Pachauri et al., 2012). However, inappropriate energy exploitation can have substantial impacts on natural environment and their goods and services (Inayat, 2011; UNEP, 2017).
More than 3 billion people i.e. about 40% of world population still depends on biomass fuels such as fuel wood, charcoal, agricultural residues, dung and coal for household energy demand (Kanangire et al., 2016; Molnar, 2017; Rehfuess et al., 2006; WHO, 2014). Burning of these traditional fuels wastefully on open fire or traditional stove for household energy use have destructive effects on health, environment and socio economic development (Jagger and Jumbe, 2016; Puzzolo et al., 2013). Due to the adverse effects of biomass burning over four million premature deaths per year, mostly of women and children (Lim et al., 2012; Usmani et al., 2017; WHO, 2006).
Traditional biomass energy serves as main source of energy for most African households primarily for cooking, drying, and space heating (Janssen and Rutz, 2012). Africa has the world’s lowermost per capita energy consumption having 16% of the world’s population i.e. 1.18 billion out of 7.35 billion population, which consumes about 3.3% of global primary energy. Biomass energy have a share of more than 30% of the energy consumed in Africa (UNEP, 2017), And in most sub Saharan African countries accounted for 90- 98% of household energy consumption (Amare, 2015).
Access to reliable and affordable energy supply is vital for sub Saharan Africa development which accounts for 13% of the world’s population. Only in sub-Saharan Africa more than 620 million people live without access to electricity and nearly 730 million people depend on the traditional use of solid biomass for cooking with wasteful stoves. Four out of five people depend on the traditional use of solid biomass, mainly fuel wood and charcoal for cooking (IEA, 2014; UNEP, 2017). Additionally, traditional biomass use has multiple adverse impacts, mostly linked to health. About 600.000 lives are lost each year in sub-Saharan Africa due to exposure to biomass smoke (Lambe et al., 2015; UNEP, 2017). similarly, in east Africa more than 200 million people are without Access to electricity, almost 80% of its population (IEA, 2014).
The energy balance of Ethiopia has been mostly dominated by two types of energy sources i.e. hydropower and biomass. Biomass has a share of 90 percent of the total energy demand. Due to this massive depletion of its biomass resources the country has been facing degradation of its forest resources (Guta, 2012). According to the Central Statistics Agency (CSA) of Ethiopia, almost 98% of rural households used biomass fuels as their main energy sources for cooking. About 84.4% of the households use firewood, around 8.2% cook with dung cakes, 4.7 % crop residue/leaves, 0.1% charcoal and only 2.7 % use others including gas, electricity for cooking (CSA and WB, 2013). Consequently, approximately annually 45,697 deaths in Ethiopia due to exposure into indoor air pollution from biomass burning (Lambe et al., 2015).
Burning sold biomass fuels for cooking emits air pollutants which have significant addition to climate change, and unmanageable wood harvesting leads to deforestation. However, increased fuel efficiency, dissemination of clean and efficient cook stoves can reduce significantly the emissions caused by cooking as well as deforestation via saving fuel wood consumption. existing approaches estimate that clean and efficient stoves can save anywhere from 1-3 tonnes of co2e/stove/year, with 1-2 tonnes being most common (USAID, 2017). “Improved cook-stoves(ICS) can reduce fuel use by 30-60% as compared to the traditional cook-stoves, and proved cleaner, more complete combustion, which can result in fewer greenhouse gas and black carbon emissions” (USAID, 2017). Furthermore, Emission can be reduced through the use of alternative fuels and end- use technologies such as efficient biomass cook stoves for household cooking and heating (Johansson et al., 2002).
As mentioned in the CRGE document of Ethiopia, improved biomass cook stoves have a potential to save fuel wood on average by 50% as compared to the traditional once. Furthermore, introducing efficient stoves has two distinct effects on GHG emissions. First, it reduces forest degradation, by saving around 0.9 t biomass/year per household. Secondly, as the woody biomass saves from cutting, carbon sequestration increases which accounts to 2.1ton/year per household if it is note burned (FDRE, 2011).
Therefore, to address the challenges associated with households cooking energy demand in developing countries promotion and dissemination of more energy efficient improved cook stoves and encouraging to switch to other modern cooking energy alternatives like LPG, gas and electricity are the two main feasible solutions (Urmee, and Gyamfi, 2014). In line with this, the government of Ethiopia have been accompanied many efforts to promote and disseminate improved biomass cook stove technologies in all parts of the country. Even though, yet the adoption of improved biomass cook stove technologies, especially Mirt and Tikikle improved cook-stoves are not still progressive at rural household level in Tigray National regional state . Why the rural households are not adopting or adopting the improved biomass cook stove technologies and their contribution to carbon emission reduction at rural household level is a big question so far not answered with substantial evidence in the study area. Thus, this study is planned with the objective of analyzing determinants of improved biomass cook stove technologies adoption and the contribution to carbon emission reduction at rural household level in in kilte ablalo wereda, eastern zone of Tigray region. Ethiopia.
1.2. Statement of the problem
Ethiopia, energy sector is highly dominated by biomass energy such as firewood, charcoal, crop residues and animal dung (Geissler et al., 2013; Kanangire et al., 2016). Biomass energy has an estimated share of more than 90% of the total domestic demand of Ethiopia (Eshetu, 2014; Kanangire et al., 2016). Furthermore about 95 % of the population uses biomass energy as their main energy sources for cooking and heating (Kanangire et al., 2016). This very high degree of dependence on wood and agricultural residues for household energy use has significant impact on the social, economic and environmental resources (Geissler et al., 2013)
Traditional solid biomass energy use with wasteful cooking stoves adversely affects human and environmental health due to exposure into indoor air pollution(IAP) and contribution to climate change, Annually about four million premature deaths are associate with IAP worldwide (WHO, 2006; Lim et al., 2012). In Ethiopia about 45,697 deaths per year are attributed to IAP associated with the inefficient residential burning of biomass energy resources (Lambe et al., 2015). numerous studies indicated that traditional burning of solid biomass for energy needs make a contribution to climate change through greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to deforestation and forest degradation that results from the overexploitation of fuel wood (Venkataraman et al., 2005).
According to CRGE document of Ethiopia, the forest resources of the country are under risk. The main reasons for deforestation and forest degradation are the growing demand for fuel wood and agricultural land. Unless necessary measure taken to curb these problems around 9 million ha might be deforested b/n 2010-2030. Furthermore, annual fuel wood consumption will rise by 65%. Which turns to forest degradation of more than 22 million tons of woody biomass (FDRE, 2011).
To solve all the above mentioned problem, the government of Ethiopia has make an effort to reduce overexploitation of biomass as energy source and to ensure environmental protection, human health, poverty reduction of households. One way to minimize the pressure on forests, household fuel wood demand, and indoor air pollution as well as to mitigate the climate change is through disseminating improved cook stove technologies as one remedial action (Kanangire et al., 2016). However, even efforts have by the government and non-governmental organizations to promote and disseminate these improved technologies in all parts of the country, adoption rate of improved cook stove in Tigray regional national state remained as low as 34% and 92% of the households use traditional fuel wood in inefficient stoves as their main source of energy which have adverse health and enevironmental impacts (source: TMEA) .
1.3. Objective of the study
1.3.1. General objective
The overall objective of this study is to analyze the determinants of improved biomass cook stove adoption and its contribution for carbon emission at rural household level in kilte-Awulalo woreda , eastern zone of Tigray region.
1.3.2. Specific objectives
1. To determine the major type of energy source and estimate the amount of energy consumption at rural household level in kilte-awulalo woreda, eastern zone of Tigray.
2. To identify the major determinants of improved biomass cook stove technology adoption at rural household level in the study area.
3. To assess level of knowledge and attitude of rural households towards the benefits of improved cook stoves in the study area?
4. To assess the contribution of improved biomass cook stoves to carbon emission in the study area?
1.4. Research questions
1. What are the major types of energy source and the amount of energy consumed at rural household level in the study area?
2. What are the major determinants of improved biomass cook stove technology adoption decision at rural household level in the study area?
3. What are the level of knowledge and attitude of rural households about the benefits of improved biomass cook stoves in the study area?
4. What are the contributions of improved biomass cook-stoves for carbon emission in the study area?
1.5. Significance of the study
The study covers issues mainly related to determinants of improved cook stove adoption and its contribution to carbon emission reduction at rural household level in Kilte-Awulalo Wereda. The findings obtained from this study could be used by policy makers in order to develop and design appropriate policies and strategies that are very help full for rural development. It may help programme planners for developing integrated development plans, programs and projects which have significant contribution for ensuring sustainable energy development for rural households. It also assists for regional bureaus and woreda level rural development offices for making informed decisions to take remedial actions against domestic energy resource, health and environmental related problems. Moreover, this study will also useful for energy researchers, higher educational institutions, stakeholders, donors and individuals working on energy sector development.
Finally, an understanding of the determinant factors for the adoption of new improved biomass cook stove technologies and their contribution to carbon emission at rural households will be important for successful implementation of energy programs and projects. Additionally, the results of the study can fill the existing literature gaps in the topic under discussion specific to the study sites and serve as future reference for researchers and other individuals.
1.6. Scope and limitation of the study
The study will be delimited to kilte ablalo woreda located in eastern zone of Tigray region. However, the findings of the study may be useful and applicable to similar areas in the region or beyond. The study will focus on determinant factors affecting rural household’s adoption of improved biomass cook stove technology such as socio-economic factors, stove characteristic factors, institutional and environmental factors as well as knowledge and attitude will be covered in detail in this stud. The major source of energy, amount of energy consumed at rural household level and perceived benefits of the improved biomass cook stove technology; the contribution to carbon emission reduction also cover. The limitation of the study is one; accurate measurement of fuel wood consumption in rural households may be difficult. Second, there is no developed emission factor for GHG emission inventory in Ethiopia. Therefore, the IPCC default emission factors will be used.
1.7. Organization of the paper
This document is organized into four chapters. The first chapter, introduction, includes background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives, research questions, and significance and scope of the study. The second chapter consists of literature review related to this study. The Third chapter encompasses research methodology, includes study area description, sampling procedure, methods of data collection and data analysis. And the fourth chapter holds up budget and timetable required for this study.